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30-06-2017

Within-Family Effects of Smoking during Pregnancy on ADHD: the Importance of Phenotype

Auteurs: Kristine Marceau, L. Cinnamon Bidwell, Hollis C. Karoly, Allison Schettini Evans, Alexandre A. Todorov, Rohan H. Palmer, Andrew C. Heath, Valerie S. Knopik

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 4/2018

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Abstract

We sought to test within- and between- family associations of smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using a structured interview based on the conventional Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) symptoms and the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behavior (SWAN) scale, which is a population based measure that grew out of the notion that an ADHD diagnosis exists on the extreme end of a continuum of normative behaviors and includes both above- and below- average performance on attention and activity. We used a sibling-comparison approach in a sample of 173 families including siblings aged 7–16 years (52% male) drawn from the state of Missouri, USA, wherein mothers smoked during one pregnancy but not the other. There was a within-family effect of smoking during pregnancy on SWAN hyperactivity/impulsivity and SWAN total ADHD behaviors. The associations between SDP and DSM-IV-based ADHD symptom dimensions as well as SWAN inattention were explained by familial confounds. These findings suggest that SDP exerts a potentially causal effect on increased ADHD hyperactive/impulsive behaviors and that this SDP effect is best captured when hyperactivity/impulsivity is assessed more normatively across the population, rather than specifically assessing problematic behaviors via DSM symptoms. Thus, any potentially causal effect of SDP on ADHD symptom dimensions may be restricted to hyperactive/impulsive behaviors rather than inattention, and normative, non-DSM-IV based behavioral measures may provide a more sensitive test of mechanisms of SDP-ADHD symptom associations, particularly in non-clinical samples.
Voetnoten
1
Results available upon author request. We also conducted the main study analyses in Mplus (Muthén and Muthén 2010) using list-wise deletion and then using Full Information Maximum Likelihood, the pattern of findings were identical. Thus, despite small differences in the few children that were excluded, list-wise deletion appears to be fine in this sample for this analysis. We continue to use this strategy, as it is what was used in the paper we attempt to replicate and extend (Knopik et al. 2016a), and in other papers from other groups investigating similar questions in the literature.
 
2
Results did not differ using the slightly skewed, raw versus square root transformed outcomes. MAGIC skewness was 0.98 for inattention, 1.57 for hyperactivity/impulsivity, and 1.18 for the total score. The SWAN skewness was 0.66 for inattention, 1.29 for hyperactivity/impulsivity, and 0.93 for the total score. Square-root transformed variables had skewness between 0.88 and 1.01 for the MAGIC and 0.67 to 1.00 for the SWAN.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Within-Family Effects of Smoking during Pregnancy on ADHD: the Importance of Phenotype
Auteurs
Kristine Marceau
L. Cinnamon Bidwell
Hollis C. Karoly
Allison Schettini Evans
Alexandre A. Todorov
Rohan H. Palmer
Andrew C. Heath
Valerie S. Knopik
Publicatiedatum
30-06-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 4/2018
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-017-0320-7

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