Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Exams in anatomy courses are traditionally summative. Formative testing induces retrieval practice, provides feedback and enhances learning results. We investigated the optimal frequency for retrieval practice during an anatomy course.
During a first-year course, students were offered four online daily quizzes a week that assessed thoracic anatomy. Once a week they received a quiz about abdominal anatomy. Students immediately received feedback afterwards. In the fourth course week, a survey about participation and satisfaction was taken. 424 students participated in the final summative exam. Trunk wall questions were used as a control. Relationship between participation and test results was investigated with a one-way ANOVA.
More frequent participation in formative tests was correlated to higher scores in the summative exam with no difference between daily and weekly quizzes. This effect was found for thorax-abdomen and ‘control’ trunk wall questions. Participation in weekly quizzes was higher (p < 0.001). All survey responses showed a significant difference in favour of the weekly quiz (p < 0.001).
Participation in formative quizzes was correlated to summative exam scores. This correlation was not specific for the material tested, probably because of diligence. Student participation and preference were much higher in weekly quizzes.
Karpicke JD, Roediger HL. Repeated retrieval during learning is the key to long-term retention. J Mem Lang. 2007;57:151–62. CrossRef
Pyc MA, Rawson KA. Testing the retrieval effort hypothesis: does greater difficulty correctly recalling information lead to higher levels of memory. J Mem Lang. 2009;60:437–47. CrossRef
Crowder R. The effects of repetition. In: Principles of learning and Memory, pp. 264–321. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1976.
Landauer TK, Bjork RA. Optimum rehearsal patterns and name learning. In: Practical Aspects of Memory, pp. 625–32. London: Academic Press; 1987.
Balota DA, Duchek JM, Sergent-Marshall SD, Roediger HL. Does expanded retrieval produce benefits over equal interval spacing? Explorations of spacing effects in healthy aging and early stage Alzheimer’s disease. Psych Aging. 2006;21:19–31. CrossRef
Logan JM, Balota DA. Expanded vs. equal interval spaced retrieval practice: exploration of schedule of spacing and retention interval in younger and older adults. Aging Neuropsychol Cogn. 2008;15(3):257–80. CrossRef
Kane MT, Crooks TJ, Cohen AS. Designing and evaluating standard-setting procedures for licensure and certification tests. Adv Health Sci Educ. 1999;4:195–207. CrossRef
Bernard H, Thayer JD, Streeter EA. Diligence and academic performance. J Res Christ Educ. 1993;2:213–34. CrossRef
The effect of student diligence, diligence support systems, self-efficacy, and locus of control on academic achievement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Tennessee State University, 2007.
Heffler B. Individual learning style and the learning style inventory. Educ Stud. 2001;27:307–16. CrossRef
Bernard H, Schuttenberg EM. Development of the diligence inventory-higher education form. J Res Dev Educ. 1995;28:91–100.
Barrow M, Reilly B, Woodfield R. The determinants of undergraduate degree performance: how important is gender? Br Educ Res J. 2009;35:575–97. CrossRef
Bruinsma M, Jansen EPWA. When will I succeed in my first-year diploma? Survival analysis in Dutch higher education. High Educ Res Dev. 2009;28:99–114. CrossRef
Masui C, Broeckmans J, Doumen S, Groenen A, Molenberghs G. Do diligent students perform better? Complex relations between student and course characteristics, study time, and academic performance in higher education. Stud High Educ. 2014;39:621–43. CrossRef
- What is more effective: a daily or a weekly formative test?
Leonieke N. Palmen
Marc A.T.M. Vorstenbosch
Jan G.M. Kooloos
- Bohn Stafleu van Loghum