Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
In high-violence countries with limited resources, it can be difficult to identify youth who are at greatest risk for poor health outcomes due to violence exposure. Profile analysis can help achieve this goal by identifying at-risk groups based on multi-variable patterns, especially if the indicators of violence exposure are sensitive enough to identify most of the youth who are at-risk for poor health, but specific enough to identify subpopulations of youth who might benefit most from intervention programs.
We conducted profile analyses to identify subgroups of secondary school students in South Africa (N = 1,317; 54% female; 40% Black; 50% Coloured; 8% White; 2% other races) who were at highest risk for substance use and risky sexual behaviors based on their exposure to different forms of violence, including witnessing violence in the community, at home, and at school, and directly experiencing community violence and racial discrimination.
Our analyses yielded five profiles: youth with (1) low-violence exposure; (2) average violence exposure ; (3) high exposure to violence at home; (4) high community victimization; and (5) very high violence exposure characterized by high to very high direct and indirect violence exposure at home, school, and in the community, and moderate levels of personal racial discrimination. Profiles were differentially associated with risk behavior.
These data underscore the need to examine racial discrimination on the continuum of exposure to violence, as it may exacerbate the effects of exposure to other types of violence and the likelihood of risky behaviors.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Blume, T. W. (1996). Social perspectives on violence. Michigan Family Review, 2, 9–23. https://doi.org/10.3998/mfr.4919087.0002.102. CrossRef
Bowman, B., Stevens, G., & Eagle, G. (2015). The second wave of violence scholarship: South Africa’s synergies with a global research agenda. Social Science and Medicine, 146, 243–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.10.014. CrossRef
Bruce, D. (2006). Racism, self-esteem and violence in SA: gaps in the NCPS’ explanation? SA Crime Quarterly, 17, 31–36.
Choe, D. E., Zimmerman, M. A., & Devnarain, B. (2012). Youth violence in South Africa: exposure, attitudes, and resilience in Zulu adolescents. Violence and Victims, 27, 166–181. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.27.2.166. CrossRef
Collings, S. J., Penning, S. L., & Valjee, S. R. (2014). Lifetime poly-victimization and posttraumatic stress disorder among school-going adolescents in Durban, South Africa. Journal of Psychiatry, 17, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.4172/2378-5756.1000133.
Constance-Huggins, M. (2012). Critical race theory in social work education: a framework for addressing racial disparities. Critical Social Work, 13, 1–16.
Dubrow, E. F., Huesmann, L. R., & Boxer, P. (2009). A social-cognitive-ecological framework for understanding the impact of exposure to persistent ethnic-political violence on children’s psychosocial adjustment. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 12, 113–126. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-009-0050-7
Duncan, N. (2012). Reaping the whirlwind: xenophobic violence in South Africa. Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice, 3, 104–112.
du Plessis, B., Kaminer, D., Hardy, A., & Benjamin, A. (2015). The contribution of different forms of violence exposure to internalizing and externalizing symptoms among young South African adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 45, 80–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.02.021. CrossRef
Eagle, G. (2015). Crime, fear and continuous traumatic stress in South Africa: what place social cohesion? Psychology in Society, 49, 83–98. https://doi.org/10.17159/2309-8708/2015/n49a7. CrossRef
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2006). Prosocial Development. In N. Eisenberg & W. Damon (Eds), Handbook of child psychology. Vol. 3.social, emotional, and personality development 6th ed. (pp. 646–718). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Evans, J., & Klasing, A. (2012). Discrimination, inequality, and poverty—A human rights perspective. New York, NY: Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/related_material/MDG_1.14.13.pdf.
Farrington D., Loeber R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2003). How can the relationship between race and violence be explained? In D. Hawkins (Ed.), Violent crime: assessing race and ethnic differences (pp. 213–237). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Hamby, S., & Ormrod, R. (2011). Polyvictimization: children’s exposure to multiple types of violence, crime and abuse. OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin—NCJ235504 (pp. 1–12). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
Fowler, P. J., Tompsett, C. J., Braciszewski, J. M., Jacques-Tiura, J. J., & Baltes, B. B. (2009). Community violence: a meta-analysis on the effect of exposure and mental health outcomes of children and adolescents. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 227–259. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579409000145. CrossRef
Graham, L. V. (2013). The importance of confronting a colonial, patriarchal and racist past in addressing post-apartheid sexual violence. African Safety Promotion Journal, 11, 28–37.
Gregorowski, C., & Seedat, S. (2013). Addressing childhood trauma in a developmental context. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 25, 105–118. https://doi.org/10.2989/17280583.2013.795154. CrossRef
Hinsberger, M., Sommer, J., Kaminer, D., Holtzhausen, L., Weierstall, R., Seedat, S., & Elbert, T. (2016). Perpetuating the cycle of violence in South African low-income communities: attraction to violence in young men exposed to continuous threat. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 7, 29099. https://doi.org/10.3402/ejpt.v7.29099. CrossRef
Honwana, A. (2014). Waithood: youth transitions and social change. In D. Foeken, T. Dietz, L. de Han, & L. Johnson, (Eds.), Development and equity: an interdisciplinary exploration by ten scholars from Africa, Asia, and Latin America (pp. 28–40). Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill.
Hornsby, N. (2016). African forum for urban safety, UN habitat conference: inaugural AFUS learning exchange, 29 June to 1 July 2016, Durban, South Africa: conference report. African Safety Promotion Journal, 14, 62–64.
Huber, L. P., & Solorzano, D. G. (2014). Racial microaggressions as a tool for critical race research. Race Ethnicity and Education, 18, 297–320. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2014.994173. CrossRef
James, S., Reddy, S. P., Ellahebokus, A., Sewpaul, R., & Naidoo, P. (2017). The association between adolescent risk behaviours and feelings of sadness or hopelessness: a cross-sectional survey of South African secondary school learners. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 22, 778–789. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2017.1300669. CrossRef
Jessor, R. (1992). Risk behavior in adolescence: a psychosocial framework for understanding and action. Developmental Review, 12, 374–390. https://doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297(92)90014-S
Kann, L., McManus, T., Harris, W. A., Shanklin, S. L., Flint, K. H., Hawkins, J., & Zaza, S. (2016). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Surveillance Summaries, 65, 1–174. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6506a1.
Kellerman, N. P. F. (2013). Epigenetic transmission of holocaust trauma: can nightmares be inherited? The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 50, 33–39.
Kramer, S., & Ratele, K. (2012). Young black men’s risk to firearm homicide in night time Johannesburg, South Africa: a retrospective analysis based on the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, 10, 16–28.
Kuther, T., & Wallace, S. (2003). Community violence and sociomoral development: an African American cultural perspective. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 73, 177–189. https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-94220.127.116.11. CrossRef
Leoschut, L., & Kafaar, Z. (2017). The frequency and predictors of poly-victimisation of South African children and the role of schools in its prevention. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 22, 81–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2016.1273533. CrossRef
Liang, H., Flisher, A. L., & Lombard, C. L. (2007). Bullying, violence, and risk behavior in South African school students. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 161–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.08.007. CrossRef
Lozada, F. T. (2019). The role of racialized emotion socialization in moderating the negative effects of discrimination on academic adjustment. In Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Baltimore, MD.
Lozada, F. T. & Riley, T. N. (2019). Racialized emotion socialization: an investigation among African American families. In Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Baltimore, MD.
Lyons-Padilla, S., Gelfand, M. J., Mirahmadi, H., Farooq, M., & Van Egmond, M. (2015). Belonging nowhere: Marginalization & radicalization risk among Muslim immigrants. Behavioral Science & Policy, 1, 1–12. CrossRef
Margolin, G., & Gordis, E. (2000). The effects of family and community violence on children. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 445–479. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.445. CrossRef
McLeod, J. D. (2013). Social Stratification and Inequality. In C. S. Aneshensel, J. C. Phelan, & A. Bierman (Eds), Handbook of the sociology of mental health, (pp. 229–253). Dordrecht, Germany: Springer.
Morojele, N. K., & Brook, J. S. (2006). Substance use and multiple victimisation among adolescents in South Africa. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1163–1176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.09.009. CrossRef
Musicaro, R. M., Spinazzola, J., Arvidson, J., Swaroop, S. R., Grace, L. G., Yarrow, A., & Ford, J. D. (2019). The complexity of adaptation to childhood polyvictimization in youth and young adults: recommendations for multidisciplinary responders. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 20, 81–98. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838017692365. CrossRef
Mustanski, B., Byck, G. R., Dymnicki, A., Sterrett, E., Henry, D., & Bolland, J. (2013). Trajectories of multiple adolescent health risk behaviors in a low-income African American population. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 1155–1169. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579413000436
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2017). Mplus user’s guide (8th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Nadal, K. L., Davidoff, K. C., Davis, L. S., Wong, Y., Marshall, D., & McKenzie, V. (2015). A qualitative approach to intersectional microaggressions: understanding influences of race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, and religion. Qualitative Psychology, 2, 147–163. https://doi.org/10.1037/qup0000026. CrossRef
Olson, K. R., Dweck, C. S., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2011). Children’s responses to group-based inequalities: perpetuation and rectification. Social Cognition, 29, 270–287. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2011.29.3.270. CrossRef
Pachter, L. M., Szalacha, L. A., Bernstein, B. A., & Coll, C. G. (2010). Perceptions of racism in children and youth (PRaCY): properties of a self-report instrument for research on children’s health and development. Ethnicity & Health, 15, 33–46. https://doi.org/10.1080/13557850903383196. CrossRef
Plybon, L., Edwards, L., Butler, D., Belgrave, F., & Allison, K. (2003). Examining the link between neighborhood cohesion and school outcomes: the role of support coping among African American adolescent girls. Journal of Black Psychology, 29, 393–407. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095798403256892. CrossRef
Reddy, S. P, Panday, S, Swart, D, Jinabhai, C. C, Amosun, S. L, James, S., & Omardien, R. G. (2003). Umthenthe uhlaba usamila–the South African youth risk behaviour survey 2002. Cape Town, SA: South African Medical Research Council.
Reddy, S, James, S, Sewpaul, R, Koopman, F, Funani, N. I, Sifunda, S., & Omardien, R. G. (2010). Umthente Uhlaba Usamila—the 2nd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2008. Cape Town, SA: South African Medical Research Council.
Reddy, S., James, S., Sewpaul, R., Sifunda, S., Ellahebokus, A., Kambaran, N. S., & Omardien, R. G. (2013). Umthente Uhlaba Usamila – The 3rd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011. Cape Town, SA: South African Medical Research Council.
Richters, J., & Saltzman, W. (1990). Survey of exposure to community violence: self report version. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.
Ryan, J., Rich, E., & Roman, N. V. (2015). Perceived childhood exposure to domestic violence: the risk for adult revictimization. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, 13, 1–16.
Sanders-Phillips, K., Pretorius, L., & Reddy, P. (2009b). Building international research partnerships to develop HIV programs for women of color in the context of social inequalities and human rights. Social Work in Public Health, 24, 60–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/19371910802569534. CrossRef
Sanders-Phillips, K., Kliewer, W., Tirmazi, T., Nebbitt, V., Carter, T., & Key, H. (2014). Perceived racial discrimination, drug use, and psychological distress in African American youth: a pathway to child health disparities. Journal of Social Issues, 70, 279–297. https://doi.org/10.1111/josi.12060. CrossRef
Scullard, N. (2015). Health, healthcare and social justice: the 9th biennial International Society of Critical Health Psychology Conference, 12 to 15 July 2015, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa. African Safety Promotion, 13, 92–94.
Seedat, M., Van Niekerk, A., Jewkes, R., Suffla, S., & Ratele, K. (2009). Violence and injuries in South Africa: prioritising an agenda for prevention. Lancet Special Issue: Health in South Africa, 374(9694), 1011–1022. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60948-X.
Sommer, J., Hinsberger, M., Elbert, T., Holtzhausen, L., Kaminer, D., Seedat, S., & Weiershall, R. (2017). The interplay between trauma, substance abuse and appetitive aggression and its relation to criminal activity among high-risk males in South Africa. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 29–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.08.008. CrossRef
South African Police Service (2015). Crime statistics of Republic of South Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: South African Police Service.
Sui, X., Massar, K., Kessels, L. T. E., Reddy, P. S., Ruiter, R. A., & Sanders-Phillips, K. (2018). Violence exposure in South African adolescents: differential and cumulative effects on psychological functioning. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260518788363
United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2010). Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2010: Reaching the Marginalized. Paris, France: UNESCO Publishing.
Ward, C. L., Artz, L., Berg, J., Boonzaier, F., Crawford-Browne, S., Dawes, A., & Van Der Spuy, E. (2012). Violence, violence prevention, and safety: a research agenda for South Africa. South African Medical Journal, 102, 215–218.
World Health Organization. (2001). Health and freedom from discrimination. WHO’s contribution to the world conference against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. (2002). World report on violence and health: summary. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinates of Health. (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health: final report of the commission on social determinants of health. commission on social determinants of health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
- Violence and Racial Discrimination in South African Youth: Profiles of a Continuum of Exposure
- Springer US
Journal of Child and Family Studies
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843