## Method

### Participants

### Procedure

### Measures

#### Draw-a-Person: A Quantitative Scoring System (DAP:QSS)

### Raven’s Progressive Matrices

### Barratt Simplified Measure of Social Status (BSMSS)

### Statistical Analysis

## Results

### Characteristics of Participants

Boys and girls (n) | 1135 and 1408 |

Age (years with months) | 11.43 (3.06), range: 5.04–17.8 |

Socioeconomic status | 29.25 (11.96), range: 0.0–66 |

Grades (n = 894) | 7.68 (1.16), range: 4.58–10.0 |

Elementary school (n, %) | 985 (38.73) |

Middle school (n, %) | 854 (33.58) |

High school (n, %) | 704 (27.69) |

DAP:QSS | α | Total sample (N = 2543) | Boys n = 1135 | Girls n = 1408 | ≤ 11 years old n = 1039 | > 11 years old n = 1504 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

M (SD) | M (SD) | M (SD) | M (SD) | M (SD) | ||

Man | 0.789 | 42.44 (9.7) | 41.65 (10.26) | 43.07 (9.19)*** | 38.01 (7.81) | 45.49 (9.71)*** |

Woman | 0.749 | 42.36 (8.71) | 41.06 (9.09) | 43.4 (8.25)*** | 37.72 (7.88) | 45.56 (7.77)*** |

Self | 0.761 | 42.97 (8.86) | 42.01 (9.27) | 43.75 (8.44)*** | 37.91 (7.81) | 46.47 (7.79)*** |

Total | 0.907 | 127.75 (24.91) | 124.7 (26.51) | 130.22 (23.27)*** | 113.6 (22.03) | 137.53 (21.92)*** |

### Construct Validity of the DAP:QSS

Total sample | ≤ 11-year-olds | > 11-year-olds | |||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Age | Grades (N = 894) | Age | RCPM (N = 1039) | Age | RSPM (N = 1504) | ||||||||||

Bivariate | Partial | Bivariate | Partial | Bivariate | Partial | Bivariate | Partial | Bivariate | Partial | Bivariate | Partial | ||||

DAP:QSS man | 0.389*** | 0.383*** | 0.080* | 0.042 | 461*** | 0.462*** | 0.461 *** | 0.514 *** | − 0.039 | − 0.045 | 0.156*** | 0.092 | |||

DAP:QSS woman | 0.462*** | 0.453*** | 0.043 | − 0.006 | 0.454*** | 0.455*** | 0.470 *** | 0.497 *** | − 0.005 | − 0.019 | 0.174*** | 0.189*** | |||

DAP:QSS self | 0.492*** | 0.486*** | 0.023 | − 0.024 | 0.479*** | 0.480*** | 0.473 *** | 0.521 *** | − 0.006 | − 0.020 | 0.178*** | 0.146** | |||

DAP:QSS total | 0.488*** | 0.481*** | 0.056 | 0.007 | 0.493*** | 0.494*** | 0.498*** | 0.539 *** | − 0.020 | − 0.033 | 0.195*** | 0.169** |

### Concurrent Validity of the DAP:QSS and Its Association with Academic Achievement

^{2}= 0.247, F = 338.469, df = 1, p < 0.001). In the second step of analysis, the addition of SES in the regression equation increased the explained variance by 1.7% (R

^{2}= 0.263, F = 184.615, df = 2, p < 0.001). In a subsequent stepwise regression analysis testing DAP:QSS scores and SES as predictors, SES surfaced as a significant predictor of RSPM scores by explaining approximately 3.9% of the variance (R

^{2}= 0.039, F = 59.356, df = 1, p < 0.001). In the second step of that analysis, the addition of DAP:QSS total scores in the regression equation increased the explained variance in RSPM scores by 3.2% (R

^{2}= 0.071, F = 55.850, df = 2, p < 0.001).

^{2}= 0.088, F = 48.986, df = 1, p < 0.001). In the second step of the analysis, the addition of DAP:QSS scores in the regression equation increased the explained variance by 1.7% (R

^{2}= 0.105, F = 29.611, df = 2, p < 0.001). Testing DAP:QSS scores, RSPM score, and SES as predictors of grades revealed that RSPM score was a significant predictor (R

^{2}= 0.23, F = 113.786, df = 1, p < 0.001), as was SES (R

^{2}= 0.327, ΔR = 0.097, F = 92.285, df = 2, p < 0.001) and DAP:QSS total score (R

^{2}= 0.349, ΔR = 0.022, F = 67.603, df = 3, p < 0.001).

### Screening Ability of the DAP:QSS

DAP:QSS score | RCPM or RSPM score | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Very low | Low | Low average | Average | High average | Superior | Very superior | Total | |

Deficient | 12 | 6 | 15 | 15 | 14 | 2 | 1 | 65 |

Borderline/deficient | 19 | 14 | 25 | 21 | 23 | 12 | 3 | 117 |

Low average | 33 | 42 | 82 | 80 | 73 | 30 | 21 | 361 |

Average | 78 | 151 | 279 | 292 | 325 | 131 | 76 | 1332 |

High average | 14 | 35 | 90 | 101 | 131 | 66 | 31 | 468 |

Superior | 4 | 12 | 32 | 39 | 44 | 28 | 17 | 176 |

Very superior | 0 | 0 | 6 | 6 | 5 | 3 | 4 | 24 |

Total | 160 | 260 | 529 | 554 | 615 | 272 | 153 | 2543 |