Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 1/2019

10-08-2018 | Original Paper

Vagal Tone as a Putative Mechanism for Pragmatic Competence: An Investigation of Carriers of the FMR1 Premutation

Auteurs: Jessica Klusek, Amanda J. Fairchild, Jane E. Roberts

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 1/2019

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Pragmatic language skills exist across a continuum in typical and clinical populations, and are impaired in many neurodevelopmental disorders, most notably autism. The mechanisms underlying pragmatic impairment are poorly understood, although theory suggests dampened vagal tone plays a role. This study investigated the FMR1 premutation as a genetic model that may lend insight into the relationship between vagal function and pragmatic ability. Participants included 38 women with the FMR1 premutation and 23 controls. Vagal tone accounted for significant variance in pragmatics across both groups and statistically mediated the effect of FMR1 premutation status on pragmatic ability. Results support vagal tone as a biophysiological correlate of pragmatic ability, which informs potential mechanistic underpinnings and could have implications for targeted treatment.
Voetnoten
1
FMR1 CGG repeat length analyses were conducted on DNA isolated from either peripheral blood lymphocytes using standard methods (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) or whole blood dried blood spots (Adayev et al. 2014), using polymerase chain reaction and Southern Blot (Filipovic-Sadic et al. 2010; Tassone et al. 2008).
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Abidin, R. R. (2013). Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition Short Form (PSI-4-SF). Lutz: PAR, Inc. Abidin, R. R. (2013). Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition Short Form (PSI-4-SF). Lutz: PAR, Inc.
go back to reference Allen, J. J., Chambers, A. S., & Towers, D. N. (2007). The many metrics of cardiac chronotropy: A pragmatic primer and a brief comparison of metrics. Biological Psychology, 74(2), 243–262. CrossRefPubMed Allen, J. J., Chambers, A. S., & Towers, D. N. (2007). The many metrics of cardiac chronotropy: A pragmatic primer and a brief comparison of metrics. Biological Psychology, 74(2), 243–262. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Alvares, G. A., Quintana, D. S., Hickie, I. B., & Guastella, A. J. (2016). Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and the impact of psychotropic medications: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Psychiatry Neuroscience, 41, 89–104. CrossRefPubMed Alvares, G. A., Quintana, D. S., Hickie, I. B., & Guastella, A. J. (2016). Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and the impact of psychotropic medications: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Psychiatry Neuroscience, 41, 89–104. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing Incorporated. CrossRef American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing Incorporated. CrossRef
go back to reference Beauchaine, T. P., & Thayer, J. F. (2015). Heart rate variability as a transdiagnostic biomarker of psychopathology. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98(2), 338–350. CrossRefPubMed Beauchaine, T. P., & Thayer, J. F. (2015). Heart rate variability as a transdiagnostic biomarker of psychopathology. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98(2), 338–350. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bishop, D. V., & Norbury, C. F. (2002). Exploring the borderlands of autistic disorder and specific language impairment: A study using standardised diagnostic instruments. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(7), 917–929. CrossRefPubMed Bishop, D. V., & Norbury, C. F. (2002). Exploring the borderlands of autistic disorder and specific language impairment: A study using standardised diagnostic instruments. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(7), 917–929. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bonassi, S., Neri, M., & Puntoni, R. (2001). Validation of biomarkers as early predictors of disease. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 480, 349–358. CrossRefPubMed Bonassi, S., Neri, M., & Puntoni, R. (2001). Validation of biomarkers as early predictors of disease. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 480, 349–358. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brook, S. L., & Bowler, D. M. (1992). Autism by another name? Semantic and pragmatic impairments in children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 22(1), 61–81. CrossRefPubMed Brook, S. L., & Bowler, D. M. (1992). Autism by another name? Semantic and pragmatic impairments in children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 22(1), 61–81. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brown, S. S., & Stanfield, A. C. (2015). Fragile X premutation carriers: A systematic review of neuroimaging findings. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 352(1), 19–28. CrossRefPubMed Brown, S. S., & Stanfield, A. C. (2015). Fragile X premutation carriers: A systematic review of neuroimaging findings. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 352(1), 19–28. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cicchetti, D. V. (2001). Methodological commentary the precision of reliability and validity estimates re-visited: Distinguishing between clinical and statistical significance of sample size requirements. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23(5), 695–700. CrossRefPubMed Cicchetti, D. V. (2001). Methodological commentary the precision of reliability and validity estimates re-visited: Distinguishing between clinical and statistical significance of sample size requirements. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23(5), 695–700. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: L. Erlbaum Associates. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: L. Erlbaum Associates.
go back to reference Conti-Ramsden, G., Botting, N., & Knox, E. (2001). Follow-up of children attending infant language units: Outcomes at 11 years of age. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 36(2), 207–219. CrossRefPubMed Conti-Ramsden, G., Botting, N., & Knox, E. (2001). Follow-up of children attending infant language units: Outcomes at 11 years of age. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 36(2), 207–219. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Coplan, R. J., & Weeks, M. (2009). Shy and soft-spoken: Shyness, pragmatic language, and socio-emotional adjustment in early childhood. Infant and Child Development, 18(3), 238–254. CrossRef Coplan, R. J., & Weeks, M. (2009). Shy and soft-spoken: Shyness, pragmatic language, and socio-emotional adjustment in early childhood. Infant and Child Development, 18(3), 238–254. CrossRef
go back to reference Fairchild, A. J., & McDaniel, H. L. (2017). Best (but oft-forgotten) practice: Mediation analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 105, 1259–1271. PubMedPubMedCentral Fairchild, A. J., & McDaniel, H. L. (2017). Best (but oft-forgotten) practice: Mediation analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 105, 1259–1271. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Fritz, M. S., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2007). Required sample size to detect the mediated effect. Psychological Science, 18(3), 233–239. CrossRefPubMed Fritz, M. S., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2007). Required sample size to detect the mediated effect. Psychological Science, 18(3), 233–239. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gatt, J., Nemeroff, C., Dobson-Stone, C., Paul, R., Bryant, R., Schofield, P., et al. (2009). Interactions between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and early life stress predict brain and arousal pathways to syndromal depression and anxiety. Molecular Psychiatry, 14(7), 681. CrossRefPubMed Gatt, J., Nemeroff, C., Dobson-Stone, C., Paul, R., Bryant, R., Schofield, P., et al. (2009). Interactions between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and early life stress predict brain and arousal pathways to syndromal depression and anxiety. Molecular Psychiatry, 14(7), 681. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Geurts, H. M., Verté, S., Oosterlaan, J., Roeyers, H., Hartman, C. A., Mulder, E. J., et al. (2004). Can the Children’s Communication Checklist differentiate between children with autism, children with ADHD, and normal controls? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(8), 1437–1453. CrossRefPubMed Geurts, H. M., Verté, S., Oosterlaan, J., Roeyers, H., Hartman, C. A., Mulder, E. J., et al. (2004). Can the Children’s Communication Checklist differentiate between children with autism, children with ADHD, and normal controls? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(8), 1437–1453. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling. In: University of Kansas, KS. Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling. In: University of Kansas, KS.
go back to reference Hessl, D., Rivera, S., Koldewyn, K., Cordeiro, L., Adams, J., Tassone, F., et al. (2007). Amygdala dysfunction in men with the fragile X premutation. Brain, 130, 404–416. CrossRefPubMed Hessl, D., Rivera, S., Koldewyn, K., Cordeiro, L., Adams, J., Tassone, F., et al. (2007). Amygdala dysfunction in men with the fragile X premutation. Brain, 130, 404–416. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (2004). Kaufman brief intelligence test (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Pearson Assessments. Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (2004). Kaufman brief intelligence test (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Pearson Assessments.
go back to reference Ketelaars, M. P., Cuperus, J., Jansonius, K., & Verhoeven, L. (2010). Pragmatic language impairment and associated behavioural problems. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 45(2), 204–214. CrossRefPubMed Ketelaars, M. P., Cuperus, J., Jansonius, K., & Verhoeven, L. (2010). Pragmatic language impairment and associated behavioural problems. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 45(2), 204–214. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kleiger, R. E., Bigger, J. T., Bosner, M. S., Chung, M. K., Cook, J. R., Rolnitzky, L. M., et al. (1991). Stability over time of variables measuring heart rate variability in normal subjects. The American Journal of Cardiology, 68(6), 626–630. CrossRefPubMed Kleiger, R. E., Bigger, J. T., Bosner, M. S., Chung, M. K., Cook, J. R., Rolnitzky, L. M., et al. (1991). Stability over time of variables measuring heart rate variability in normal subjects. The American Journal of Cardiology, 68(6), 626–630. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Klusek, J., Roberts, J. E., & Losh, M. (2015). Cardiac autonomic regulation in autism and fragile X syndrome: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 141–175. CrossRefPubMed Klusek, J., Roberts, J. E., & Losh, M. (2015). Cardiac autonomic regulation in autism and fragile X syndrome: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 141–175. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Klusek, J., LaFauci, G., Adayev, T., Brown, W. T., Tassone, F., & Roberts, J. (2017a). Reduced vagal tone in women with the FMR1 premutation is associated with FMR1 mRNA but not depression or anxiety. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 9, 1–16. CrossRef Klusek, J., LaFauci, G., Adayev, T., Brown, W. T., Tassone, F., & Roberts, J. (2017a). Reduced vagal tone in women with the FMR1 premutation is associated with FMR1 mRNA but not depression or anxiety. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 9, 1–16. CrossRef
go back to reference Klusek, J., Schmidt, J., Fairchild, A. J., Porter, A., & Roberts, J. E. (2017c). Altered sensitivity to social gaze in the FMR1 premutation and pragmatic language competence. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 9, 1–10. CrossRef Klusek, J., Schmidt, J., Fairchild, A. J., Porter, A., & Roberts, J. E. (2017c). Altered sensitivity to social gaze in the FMR1 premutation and pragmatic language competence. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 9, 1–10. CrossRef
go back to reference Kok, B. E., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2010). Upward spirals of the heart: Autonomic flexibility, as indexed by vagal tone, reciprocally and prospectively predicts positive emotions and social connectedness. Biological Psychology, 85(3), 432–436. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Kok, B. E., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2010). Upward spirals of the heart: Autonomic flexibility, as indexed by vagal tone, reciprocally and prospectively predicts positive emotions and social connectedness. Biological Psychology, 85(3), 432–436. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Landa, R. (2000). Social language use in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. In K. Ami, F. Volkmar & S. S. Sparrow (Eds.), Asperger syndrome (pp. 403–417). New York: Guilford Press. Landa, R. (2000). Social language use in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. In K. Ami, F. Volkmar & S. S. Sparrow (Eds.), Asperger syndrome (pp. 403–417). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Landa, R., Piven, J., Wzorek, M. M., Gayle, J. O., Chase, G. A., & Folstein, S. E. (1992). Social language use in parents of autistic individuals. Psychological Medicine, 22(1), 245–254. CrossRefPubMed Landa, R., Piven, J., Wzorek, M. M., Gayle, J. O., Chase, G. A., & Folstein, S. E. (1992). Social language use in parents of autistic individuals. Psychological Medicine, 22(1), 245–254. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Laws, G., Bates, G., Feuerstein, M., Mason-Apps, E., & White, C. (2012). Peer acceptance of children with language and communication impairments in a mainstream primary school: Associations with type of language difficulty, problem behaviours and a change in placement organization. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 28(1), 73–86. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1177/​0265659011419234​. CrossRef Laws, G., Bates, G., Feuerstein, M., Mason-Apps, E., & White, C. (2012). Peer acceptance of children with language and communication impairments in a mainstream primary school: Associations with type of language difficulty, problem behaviours and a change in placement organization. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 28(1), 73–86. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1177/​0265659011419234​. CrossRef
go back to reference Losh, M., Klusek, J., Martin, G. E., Sideris, J., Parlier, M., & Piven, J. (2012). Defining genetically meaningful language and personality traits in relatives of individuals with fragile X syndrome and relatives of individuals with autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 159B(6), 660–668. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​ajmg.​b.​32070. CrossRef Losh, M., Klusek, J., Martin, G. E., Sideris, J., Parlier, M., & Piven, J. (2012). Defining genetically meaningful language and personality traits in relatives of individuals with fragile X syndrome and relatives of individuals with autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 159B(6), 660–668. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​ajmg.​b.​32070. CrossRef
go back to reference MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(1), 99–128. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(1), 99–128. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Maddalena, A., Richards, C. S., McGinniss, M. J., Brothman, A., Desnick, R. J., Grier, R. E., et al. (2001). Technical standards and guidelines for fragile X: The first of a series of disease-specific supplements to the Standards and Guidelines for Clinical Genetics Laboratories of the American College of Medical Genetics. Genetics in Medicine, 3(3), 200–205. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Maddalena, A., Richards, C. S., McGinniss, M. J., Brothman, A., Desnick, R. J., Grier, R. E., et al. (2001). Technical standards and guidelines for fragile X: The first of a series of disease-specific supplements to the Standards and Guidelines for Clinical Genetics Laboratories of the American College of Medical Genetics. Genetics in Medicine, 3(3), 200–205. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Piven, J., Palmer, P., Landa, R., Santangelo, S., Jacobi, D., & Childress, D. (1997). Personality and language characteristics in parents from multiple-incidence autism families. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 74(4), 398–411. CrossRef Piven, J., Palmer, P., Landa, R., Santangelo, S., Jacobi, D., & Childress, D. (1997). Personality and language characteristics in parents from multiple-incidence autism families. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 74(4), 398–411. CrossRef
go back to reference Porges, S. W. (1985). U.S. Patent No. 4520944. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Porges, S. W. (1985). U.S. Patent No. 4520944. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
go back to reference Porges, S. W., & Bohrer, R. E. (1990). Analyses of periodic processes in psychophysiological research. In J. T. Cacioppo & L. G. Tassinary (Eds.), Principles of Psychophysiology: Physical, Social, and Inferential Elements (pp. 708–753). New York: Cambridge University Press. Porges, S. W., & Bohrer, R. E. (1990). Analyses of periodic processes in psychophysiological research. In J. T. Cacioppo & L. G. Tassinary (Eds.), Principles of Psychophysiology: Physical, Social, and Inferential Elements (pp. 708–753). New York: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Prutting, C. A. (1982). Pragmatics as social competence. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Disorders, 47(2), 123–134. CrossRef Prutting, C. A. (1982). Pragmatics as social competence. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Disorders, 47(2), 123–134. CrossRef
go back to reference Reisinger, L. M., Cornish, K. M., & Fombonne, É (2011). Diagnostic differentiation of autism spectrum disorders and pragmatic language impairment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(12), 1694–1704. CrossRefPubMed Reisinger, L. M., Cornish, K. M., & Fombonne, É (2011). Diagnostic differentiation of autism spectrum disorders and pragmatic language impairment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(12), 1694–1704. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Roberts, J. E., Tonnsen, B. L., Robinson, A. R., Tackett, B., & Clark, C. (2011). Physiological mechanisms of fear and anxiety in young children with fragile X. In J.E. Roberts & H.C. Hazlett (Co-Chairs), Biomarkers and behavioral indicators of anxiety and fear in young males with fragile X syndrome. Symposium presented at the 44th Annual Gatlinburg Conference of Intellectual Disabilities. In. San Antonio, TX. Roberts, J. E., Tonnsen, B. L., Robinson, A. R., Tackett, B., & Clark, C. (2011). Physiological mechanisms of fear and anxiety in young children with fragile X. In J.E. Roberts & H.C. Hazlett (Co-Chairs), Biomarkers and behavioral indicators of anxiety and fear in young males with fragile X syndrome. Symposium presented at the 44th Annual Gatlinburg Conference of Intellectual Disabilities. In. San Antonio, TX.
go back to reference Schneider, A., Johnston, C., Tassone, F., Sansone, S., Hagerman, R., Ferrer, E., et al. (2016). Broad autism spectrum and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in adults with the fragile X premutation. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 30(6), 929–943. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Schneider, A., Johnston, C., Tassone, F., Sansone, S., Hagerman, R., Ferrer, E., et al. (2016). Broad autism spectrum and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in adults with the fragile X premutation. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 30(6), 929–943. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422–445. CrossRefPubMed Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422–445. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference SPSS, I. (2012). Statistics for windows, version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. SPSS, I. (2012). Statistics for windows, version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
go back to reference Sumner, J. A., McLaughlin, K. A., Walsh, K., Sheridan, M. A., & Koenen, K. C. (2015). Caregiving and 5-HTTLPR genotype predict adolescent physiological stress reactivity: Confirmatory tests of gene × environment interactions. Child Development, 86(4), 985–994. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Sumner, J. A., McLaughlin, K. A., Walsh, K., Sheridan, M. A., & Koenen, K. C. (2015). Caregiving and 5-HTTLPR genotype predict adolescent physiological stress reactivity: Confirmatory tests of gene × environment interactions. Child Development, 86(4), 985–994. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Swineford, L. B., Thurm, A., Baird, G., Wetherby, A. M., & Swedo, S. (2014). Social (pragmatic) communication disorder: A research review of this new DSM-5 diagnostic category. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 6(1), 41. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Swineford, L. B., Thurm, A., Baird, G., Wetherby, A. M., & Swedo, S. (2014). Social (pragmatic) communication disorder: A research review of this new DSM-5 diagnostic category. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 6(1), 41. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Tassone, F., Pan, R., Amiri, K., Taylor, A. K., & Hagerman, P. J. (2008). A rapid polymerase chain reaction-based screening method for identification of all expanded alleles of the fragile X (FMR1) gene in newborn and high-risk populations. Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, 10(1), 43–49. CrossRef Tassone, F., Pan, R., Amiri, K., Taylor, A. K., & Hagerman, P. J. (2008). A rapid polymerase chain reaction-based screening method for identification of all expanded alleles of the fragile X (FMR1) gene in newborn and high-risk populations. Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, 10(1), 43–49. CrossRef
go back to reference Valeri, L., & VanderWeele, T. J. (2013). Mediation analysis allowing for exposure–mediator interactions and causal interpretation: Theoretical assumptions and implementation with SAS and SPSS macros. Psychological Methods, 18(2), 137. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Valeri, L., & VanderWeele, T. J. (2013). Mediation analysis allowing for exposure–mediator interactions and causal interpretation: Theoretical assumptions and implementation with SAS and SPSS macros. Psychological Methods, 18(2), 137. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Whitehouse, A., Watt, H., Line, E., & Bishop, D. (2009). Adult psychosocial outcomes of children with specific language impairment, pragmatic language impairment and autism. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 44(4), 511–528. CrossRefPubMed Whitehouse, A., Watt, H., Line, E., & Bishop, D. (2009). Adult psychosocial outcomes of children with specific language impairment, pragmatic language impairment and autism. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 44(4), 511–528. CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Vagal Tone as a Putative Mechanism for Pragmatic Competence: An Investigation of Carriers of the FMR1 Premutation
Auteurs
Jessica Klusek
Amanda J. Fairchild
Jane E. Roberts
Publicatiedatum
10-08-2018
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 1/2019
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3714-7