Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 7/2010

01-07-2010 | Original Paper

Using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale to Diagnose Autism Spectrum Disorders

Auteurs: Colby Chlebowski, James A. Green, Marianne L. Barton, Deborah Fein

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 7/2010

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study investigated the childhood autism rating scale (CARS) as a tool for ASD diagnoses for 2-year-old (n = 376) and 4-year-old (n = 230) children referred for possible autism. The cut-off score to distinguish autistic disorder from PDD-NOS was 32 in the 2-year-old sample (consistent with Lord in J Child Psychol Psychiatry Allied Discipl, 36, 1365–1382, 1995), and 30 in the 4-year-old sample, with good sensitivity and specificity at both ages. The cut-off score to distinguish ASD from non-ASD at both ages was 25.5, with good sensitivity and specificity. Results confirm the utility of the CARS in distinguishing autistic disorder from PDD-NOS, and distinguishing ASD from other developmental disorders and typical development and suggest that an ASD cutoff around 25, which is in common clinical use, is valid.
Literatuur
go back to reference Adrien, J., Perrot, A., Sauvage, D., Leddet, I., Larmande, C., & Barthelemy, C. (1992). Early symptoms in autism from family home movies. Evaluation and comparison between 1st and 2nd year of life using I.B.S.E. scale. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 55(2), 71–75. PubMed Adrien, J., Perrot, A., Sauvage, D., Leddet, I., Larmande, C., & Barthelemy, C. (1992). Early symptoms in autism from family home movies. Evaluation and comparison between 1st and 2nd year of life using I.B.S.E. scale. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 55(2), 71–75. PubMed
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. (Text revision). American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. (Text revision).
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Allen, J., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Can autism be detected at 18 months? The needle, the haystack, and the CHAT. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 161(6), 839–843. CrossRefPubMed Baron-Cohen, S., Allen, J., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Can autism be detected at 18 months? The needle, the haystack, and the CHAT. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 161(6), 839–843. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Buitelaar, J., Van der Gaag, R., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. (1999). Exploring the boundaries of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified: Analyses of data from the DSM-IV autistic disorder field trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 33–43. CrossRefPubMed Buitelaar, J., Van der Gaag, R., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. (1999). Exploring the boundaries of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified: Analyses of data from the DSM-IV autistic disorder field trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 33–43. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Chakrabarti, S., & Fombonne, E. (2001). Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 3093–3099. CrossRefPubMed Chakrabarti, S., & Fombonne, E. (2001). Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 3093–3099. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Charman, T., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2006). Screening for autism spectrum disorders in populations: Progress, challenges, and questions for future research and practice. In T. Charman & W. Stone (Eds.), Social and communication development in autism spectrum disorders (pp. 63–82). New York: Guilford Press. Charman, T., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2006). Screening for autism spectrum disorders in populations: Progress, challenges, and questions for future research and practice. In T. Charman & W. Stone (Eds.), Social and communication development in autism spectrum disorders (pp. 63–82). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Chlebowski, C., Barton, M., Hodgson, S., & Fein, D. (2008). Does the CARS cutoff score influence agreement among diagnostic instruments for autism spectrum disorders and clinical judgment in preschool aged children? Poster presented at the meeting of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, Boston, MA. Chlebowski, C., Barton, M., Hodgson, S., & Fein, D. (2008). Does the CARS cutoff score influence agreement among diagnostic instruments for autism spectrum disorders and clinical judgment in preschool aged children? Poster presented at the meeting of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, Boston, MA.
go back to reference Chlebowski, C., Barton, M., Hodgson, S., & Fein, D. (2009). Diagnostic stability of autism spectrum disorder diagnoses made before age 2. Poster presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research, Chicago, Illinois. Chlebowski, C., Barton, M., Hodgson, S., & Fein, D. (2009). Diagnostic stability of autism spectrum disorder diagnoses made before age 2. Poster presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research, Chicago, Illinois.
go back to reference Cicchetti, D. (1994). Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assessment, 6, 284–290. CrossRef Cicchetti, D. (1994). Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assessment, 6, 284–290. CrossRef
go back to reference Cicchetti, D., & Sparrow, S. (1981). Developing criteria for establishing interrater reliability of specific items: applications to assessment of adaptive behavior. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 86, 127–137. PubMed Cicchetti, D., & Sparrow, S. (1981). Developing criteria for establishing interrater reliability of specific items: applications to assessment of adaptive behavior. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 86, 127–137. PubMed
go back to reference Cicchetti, D. V., Volkmar, F., Klin, A., & Showalter, D. (1995). Diagnosing autism using ICD-10 criteria: A comparison of neural networks and standard multivariate procedures. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 26–37. CrossRef Cicchetti, D. V., Volkmar, F., Klin, A., & Showalter, D. (1995). Diagnosing autism using ICD-10 criteria: A comparison of neural networks and standard multivariate procedures. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 26–37. CrossRef
go back to reference de Bildt, A., Sytema, S., Ketelaars, C., Kraijer, D., Mulder, E., Volkmar, F., et al. (2004). Interrelationship between Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 129–137. CrossRefPubMed de Bildt, A., Sytema, S., Ketelaars, C., Kraijer, D., Mulder, E., Volkmar, F., et al. (2004). Interrelationship between Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 129–137. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Eaves, R., & Milner, B. (1993). The criterion-related validity of the childhood autism rating scale and the autism behavior checklist. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 481–491. CrossRefPubMed Eaves, R., & Milner, B. (1993). The criterion-related validity of the childhood autism rating scale and the autism behavior checklist. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 481–491. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Filipek, P., Accardo, P., Baranek, G., Cook, E., Dawson, G., Gordon, B., et al. (1999). The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 437–482. CrossRef Filipek, P., Accardo, P., Baranek, G., Cook, E., Dawson, G., Gordon, B., et al. (1999). The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 437–482. CrossRef
go back to reference Kleinman, J., Ventola, P., Pandey, J., Verbalis, A., Barton, M., Hodgson, S., et al. (2008). Diagnostic stability in very young children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 606–615. CrossRefPubMed Kleinman, J., Ventola, P., Pandey, J., Verbalis, A., Barton, M., Hodgson, S., et al. (2008). Diagnostic stability in very young children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 606–615. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Klin, A., Lang, J., Cicchetti, D., & Volkmar, F. (2000). Brief report: Interrater reliability of clinical diagnosis and DSM IV criteria for autistic disorder: Results of the DSM IV Field Trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 163–167. CrossRefPubMed Klin, A., Lang, J., Cicchetti, D., & Volkmar, F. (2000). Brief report: Interrater reliability of clinical diagnosis and DSM IV criteria for autistic disorder: Results of the DSM IV Field Trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 163–167. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lord, C. (1995). Follow-up of two-year-olds referred for possible autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 36, 1365–1382. CrossRef Lord, C. (1995). Follow-up of two-year-olds referred for possible autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 36, 1365–1382. CrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H. J., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223. CrossRefPubMed Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H. J., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lord, C., Storoschuk, S., Rutter, M., & Pickles, A. (1993). Using the ADI-R to diagnose autism in preschool children. Infant Mental Health Journal, 14, 234–252. CrossRef Lord, C., Storoschuk, S., Rutter, M., & Pickles, A. (1993). Using the ADI-R to diagnose autism in preschool children. Infant Mental Health Journal, 14, 234–252. CrossRef
go back to reference Luteijn, E., Serra, M., Jackson, S., Steenhuis, M., Althaus, M., Volkmar, F., et al. (2000). How unspecified are disorders of children with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified? A study of social problems in children with PDD-NOS and ADHD. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 9, 168–179. CrossRefPubMed Luteijn, E., Serra, M., Jackson, S., Steenhuis, M., Althaus, M., Volkmar, F., et al. (2000). How unspecified are disorders of children with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified? A study of social problems in children with PDD-NOS and ADHD. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 9, 168–179. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Matson, J., & Boisjoli, J. (2007). Differential diagnosis of PDD-NOS in children. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 1, 75–84. CrossRef Matson, J., & Boisjoli, J. (2007). Differential diagnosis of PDD-NOS in children. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 1, 75–84. CrossRef
go back to reference Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning: AGS edition. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service. Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning: AGS edition. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
go back to reference Nordin, V., Gillberg, C., & Nydén, A. (1998). The Swedish version of the childhood autism rating scale in a clinical setting. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 69–75. CrossRefPubMed Nordin, V., Gillberg, C., & Nydén, A. (1998). The Swedish version of the childhood autism rating scale in a clinical setting. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 69–75. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Perry, R. (1998). Misdiagnosed ADD/ADHD: Rediagnosed PDD. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 113–114. CrossRef Perry, R. (1998). Misdiagnosed ADD/ADHD: Rediagnosed PDD. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 113–114. CrossRef
go back to reference Perry, A., Condillac, R., Freeman, N., Dunn-Geier, J., & Belair, J. (2005). Multi-site study of the childhood autism rating scale (CARS) in five clinical groups of young children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 625–634. CrossRefPubMed Perry, A., Condillac, R., Freeman, N., Dunn-Geier, J., & Belair, J. (2005). Multi-site study of the childhood autism rating scale (CARS) in five clinical groups of young children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 625–634. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Perry, A., & Freeman, N. (1996). Psychometric properties of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Poster presented at the Ontario Association on Developmental Disabilities Research Special Interest Group Research Day, Toronto, ON. Perry, A., & Freeman, N. (1996). Psychometric properties of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Poster presented at the Ontario Association on Developmental Disabilities Research Special Interest Group Research Day, Toronto, ON.
go back to reference Rellini, E., Tortolani, D., Trillo, S., Carbone, S., & Montecchi, F. (2004). Childhood autism rating scale (CARS) correspondence and conflicts with DSM-IV criteria in diagnosis of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 703–708. CrossRefPubMed Rellini, E., Tortolani, D., Trillo, S., Carbone, S., & Montecchi, F. (2004). Childhood autism rating scale (CARS) correspondence and conflicts with DSM-IV criteria in diagnosis of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 703–708. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Risi, S., Lord, C., Gotham, K., Corsello, C., Chrysler, C., Szatmari, P., et al. (2006). Combining information from multiple sources in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 1094–1103. CrossRef Risi, S., Lord, C., Gotham, K., Corsello, C., Chrysler, C., Szatmari, P., et al. (2006). Combining information from multiple sources in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 1094–1103. CrossRef
go back to reference Robins, D., Fein, D., Barton, M., & Green, J. (2001). The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: An initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 131–144. CrossRefPubMed Robins, D., Fein, D., Barton, M., & Green, J. (2001). The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: An initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 131–144. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Saemundsen, E., Magnusson, P., Smari, J., & Sigurdarddottir, S. (2003). Autism diagnostic interview—revised and the childhood autism rating scale: Convergence and discrepancy in diagnosing autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 319–328. CrossRefPubMed Saemundsen, E., Magnusson, P., Smari, J., & Sigurdarddottir, S. (2003). Autism diagnostic interview—revised and the childhood autism rating scale: Convergence and discrepancy in diagnosing autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 319–328. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Schopler, E., Reichler, R., & DeVellis, R. (1980). Toward objective classification of childhood autism: Childhood autism rating scale (CARS). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10, 91–103. CrossRefPubMed Schopler, E., Reichler, R., & DeVellis, R. (1980). Toward objective classification of childhood autism: Childhood autism rating scale (CARS). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10, 91–103. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Schopler, E., Reichler, R., & Rochen Renner, B. (1988). The childhood autism rating scale. Western Psychological Services. Schopler, E., Reichler, R., & Rochen Renner, B. (1988). The childhood autism rating scale. Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Spitzer, R., & Siegel, B. (1990). The DSM-III-R field trial of pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 855–862. CrossRef Spitzer, R., & Siegel, B. (1990). The DSM-III-R field trial of pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 855–862. CrossRef
go back to reference Stone, W., Lee, F., Ashford, L., Brisie, J., Hepburn, S., & Coonrod, E. (1999). Can autism be diagnosed accurately in children under three? Journal of Child Psychiatry Psychology and Allied Disciplines, 40, 219–226. CrossRef Stone, W., Lee, F., Ashford, L., Brisie, J., Hepburn, S., & Coonrod, E. (1999). Can autism be diagnosed accurately in children under three? Journal of Child Psychiatry Psychology and Allied Disciplines, 40, 219–226. CrossRef
go back to reference Tachimori, H., Osada, H., & Kurita, H. (2003). Childhood autism rating scale-Tokyo version for screening pervasive developmental disorders. Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 57, 113–118. CrossRef Tachimori, H., Osada, H., & Kurita, H. (2003). Childhood autism rating scale-Tokyo version for screening pervasive developmental disorders. Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 57, 113–118. CrossRef
go back to reference Tidmarsh, L., & Volkmar, F. (2003). Diagnosis and epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry/La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie, 48, 517–525. Tidmarsh, L., & Volkmar, F. (2003). Diagnosis and epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry/La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie, 48, 517–525.
go back to reference Ventola, P., Kleinman, J., Pandey, J., Barton, M., Allen, S., Green, J., et al. (2006). Agreement among four diagnostic instruments for autism spectrum disorders in toddlers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 839–847. CrossRefPubMed Ventola, P., Kleinman, J., Pandey, J., Barton, M., Allen, S., Green, J., et al. (2006). Agreement among four diagnostic instruments for autism spectrum disorders in toddlers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 839–847. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Volkmar, F., Klin, A., Siegel, B., & Szatmari, P. (1994). Field trial for autistic disorder in DSM-IV. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1361–1367. PubMed Volkmar, F., Klin, A., Siegel, B., & Szatmari, P. (1994). Field trial for autistic disorder in DSM-IV. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1361–1367. PubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale to Diagnose Autism Spectrum Disorders
Auteurs
Colby Chlebowski
James A. Green
Marianne L. Barton
Deborah Fein
Publicatiedatum
01-07-2010
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 7/2010
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0926-x