Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-019-00559-w) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Theoretical models of Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have long implicated executive function (EF) skills as contributing to the etiology, maintenance, and changes in ADHD symptomatology over time. Although there is interest making within-person inferences (i.e., deficits in EF skills give rise to ADHD behaviors), most of the evidence has been derived from studies that conflated between- and within-person sources of variance. Here, we use repeated-measures data to test within-person association between EF skills and ADHD behaviors. Participants included 1160 children from the Family Life Project, an ongoing prospective longitudinal study of child development in low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. We tested the magnitude of the association between EF skills and ADHD behaviors when children were 3, 4, and 5 years old. Consistent with meta-analyses, unadjusted bivariate associations between EF and ADHD (which reflect combined between- and within-person variation) were of moderate magnitude (rs = −0.20 to −0.30). However, after controlling for all time-invariant, between-person sources of variation, the within-person associations between EF skills and ADHD behaviors were weak (βs − 0.04 to −0.05, ps = 0.01). These results suggest that EF skills may contribute less prominently to ADHD behaviors in early childhood than is commonly assumed and provoke broader questions about developmental models of ADHD.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
ESM 1 (DOCX 193 kb)10802_2019_559_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Alderson, R. M., Rapport, M. D., & Kofler, M. J. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavioral inhibition: A meta-analytic review of the stop-signal paradigm. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(5), 745–758. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9131-6.
Allison, P. D. (2009). Fixed effects regression models. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412993869.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition (DSM-V). Washington, DC: Author.
Arias, V. B., Ponce, F. P., & Nunez, D. E. (2018). Bifactor models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): An evaluation of three necessary but underused psychometric indexes. Assessment, 25(7), 885–897. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191116679260.
Arnett, A. B., Pennington, B. F., Young, J. F., & Hankin, B. L. (2016). Links between within-person fluctuations in hyperactivity/attention problems and subsequent conduct problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57(4), 502–509.
Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121(1), 65–94.
Bollen, K. A., & Brand, J. E. (2010). A general panel model with random and fixed effects: A structural equations approach. Social Forces, 89(1), 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.2010.0072.
Castellanos, F. X., & Aoki, Y. (2016). Intrinsic functional connectivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A science in development. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 1(3), 253–261.
Coghill, D. R., Seth, S., & Matthews, K. (2014). A comprehensive assessment of memory, delay aversion, timing, inhibition, decision making and variability in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Advancing beyond the three-pathway models. Psychological Medicine, 44(9), 1989–2001. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713002547.
Cortese, S. (2012). The neurobiology and genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): What every clinician should know. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 16(5), 422–433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2012.01.009.
Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2011). The disaggregation of within-person and between-person effects in longitudinal models of change. Annual Review of Psychology, 62(1), 583–619. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100356.
Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 63(64), 135–168. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750.
Doyle, A. E. (2006). Executive functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(Suppl 8, 21–26.
Espy, K. (2017). The changing nature of executive control in preschool. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 81(4), 1–179. https://doi.org/10.1111/mono.12273.
Fair, D. A., Bathula, D., Nikolas, M. A., & Nigg, J. T. (2012). Distinct neuropsychological subgroups in typically developing youth inform heterogeneity in children with ADHD. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(17), 6769–6774. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1115365109.
Garon, N., Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134(1), 31–60. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.134.1.31.
Gomez, R., Vance, A., & Gomez, R. M. (2018). Validity of the ADHD Bifactor model in general community samples of adolescents and adults, and a clinic-referred sample of children and adolescents. Journal of Attention Disorders, 22(14), 1307–1319.
Halaby, C. N. (2004). Panel models in sociological research: Theory into practice. Annual Review of Sociology, 30(1), 507–544. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.30.012703.110629.
Halperin, J. M., Bédard, A. C. V., & Curchack-Lichtin, J. T. (2012). Preventive interventions for ADHD: A neurodevelopmental perspective. Neurotherapeutics: The Journal of the American Society for Experimental Neurotherapeutics, 9(3), 531–541. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-012-0123-z.
Halperin, J. M., Marks, D. J., Bedard, A. C., Chacko, A., Curchack, J. T., Yoon, C. A., & Healey, D. M. (2013). Training executive, attention, and motor skills: A proof-of-concept study in preschool children with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 17(8), 711–721. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054711435681.
Hervey, A. S., Epstein, J. N., & Curry, J. F. (2004). Neuropsychology of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review. Neuropsychology, 18(3), 485–503. https://doi.org/10.1037/0894-4126.96.36.1995.
Homack, S., & Riccio, C. A. (2004). A meta-analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of the Stroop color and word test with children. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19(6), 725–743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acn.2003.09.003.
Hoza, B., Smith, A. L., Shoulberg, E. K., Linnea, K. S., Dorsch, T. E., Blazo, J. A., . . . McCabe, G. P. (2015). A randomized trial examining the effects of aerobic physical activity on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in young children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(4), 655–667. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-014-9929-y
Huang-Pollock, C. L., Nigg, J. T., & Carr, T. H. (2005). Deficient attention is hard to find: Applying the perceptual load model of selective attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 46(11), 1211–1218. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.00410.x.
Karr, J. E., Areshenkoff, C. N., Rast, P., Hofer, S. M., Iverson, G. L., & Garcia-Barrera, M. A. (2018). The unity and diversity of executive functions: A systematic review and re-analysis of latent variable studies. Psychological Bulletin, 144(11), 1147–1185. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000160.
Kofler, M. J., Irwin, L. N., Soto, E. F., Groves, N. B., Harmon, S. L., & Sarver, D. E. (2019). Executive functioning heterogeneity in pediatric ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 47(2), 273–286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-018-0438-2.
Levy, F. (1991). The dopamine theory of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 25(2), 277–283. https://doi.org/10.3109/00048679109077746.
Levy, F., Ban, C., & Sunohara, G. (1998). Directions of aetiologic research on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 32(1), 97–103. https://doi.org/10.3109/00048679809062715.
Middeldorp, C. M., Hammerschlag, A. R., Ouwens, K. G., Groen-Blokhuis, M. M., St. Pourcain, B., Greven, C. U., et al. (2016). A genome-wide association meta-analysis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in population-based pediatric cohorts. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(10), 896–905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2016.05.025.
Mostert, J. C., Onnink, A. M. H., Klein, M., Dammers, J., Harneit, A., Schulten, T., et al. (2015). Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(11), 2062–2074. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.08.010.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2017). Mplus user’s guide. Statistical analysis with latent variables (8th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén and Muthén. https://www.statmodel.com/download/usersguide/MplusUserGuideVer_8.pdf
Nigg, J. T. (2001). Is ADHD a disinhibitory disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 127(5), 571–598.
Nigg, J. T., Willcutt, E. G., Doyle, A. E., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. (2005). Causal heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Do we need neuropsychologically impaired subtypes? Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1224–1230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.08.025.
Pauli-Pott, U., & Becker, K. (2011). Neuropsychological basic deficits in preschoolers at risk for ADHD: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(4), 626–637. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2011.02.005.
Pauli-Pott, U., & Becker, K. (2015). Time windows matter in ADHD-related developing neuropsychological basic deficits: A comprehensive review and meta-regression analysis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 55, 165–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.04.011.
Pauli-Pott, U., Schloß, S., Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, M., & Becker, K. (2017). Multiple causal pathways in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – Do emerging executive and motivational deviations precede symptom development? Child Neuropsychology, 25, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2017.1380177.
Pelham, W. E., et al. (1992). Teacher ratings of DSM-III--R symptoms for the disruptive behavior disorders: Prevalence, factor analyses, and conditional probabilities in a special education sample. School Psychology Review 21(2), 285–299.
Rajendran, K., O’Neill, S., Marks, D. J., & Halperin, J. M. (2015). Latent profile analysis of neuropsychological measures to determine preschoolers’ risk for ADHD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 56(9), 958–965. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12434.
Roberts, B. A., Martel, M. M., & Nigg, J. T. (2017). Are there executive dysfunction subtypes within ADHD? Journal of Attention Disorders, 21(4), 284–293. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054713510349.
Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7(2), 147–177. https://doi.org/10.1037//1082-989x.7.2.147.
Schoemaker, K., Mulder, H., Deković, M., & Matthys, W. (2013). Executive functions in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(3), 457–471. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9684-x.
Sjöwall, D., Bohlin, G., Rydell, A. M., & Thorell, L. B. (2017). Neuropsychological deficits in preschool as predictors of ADHD symptoms and academic achievement in late adolescence. Child Neuropsychology, 23(1), 111–128. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2015.1063595.
Sjowall, D., & Thorell, L. B. (2019). A critical appraisal of the role of neuropsychological deficits in preschool ADHD. Child Neuropsychology, 25(1), 60–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2018.1447096.
Sonuga-Barke, E., Bitsakou, P., & Thompson, M. (2010). Beyond the dual pathway model: Evidence for the dissociation of timing, inhibitory, and delay-related impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(4), 345–355. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-201004000-00009.
Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., & Halperin, J. M. (2010). Developmental phenotypes and causal pathways in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Potential targets for early intervention. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 51(4), 368–389. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02195.x.
Spencer-Smith, M., & Klingberg, T. (2015). Benefits of a working memory training program for inattention in daily life: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 10(3), e0119522. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119522.
Swanson, J., Castellanos, F. X., Murias, M., LaHoste, G., & Kennedy, J. (1998). Cognitive neuroscience of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 8(2), 263–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4388(98)80150-5.
Tamm, L., & Nakonezny, P. A. (2015). Metacognitive executive function training for young children with ADHD: A proof-of-concept study. Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(3), 183–190. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0162-x.
Tamm, L., Narad, M. E., Antonini, T. N., O’Brien, K. M., Hawk, L. W., Jr., & Epstein, J. N. (2012). Reaction time variability in ADHD: A review. Neurotherapeutics: The Journal of the American Society for Experimental Neurotherapeutics, 9(3), 500–508. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-012-0138-5.
Tibu, F., Sheridan, M. A., McLaughlin, K. A., Nelson, C. A., Fox, N. A., & Zeanah, C. H. (2016a). Disruptions of working memory and inhibition mediate the association between exposure to institutionalization and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Medicine, 46(3), 529–541. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291715002020.
Tibu, F., Sheridan, M. A., McLaughlin, K. A., Nelson, C. A., Fox, N. A., & Zeanah, C. H. (2016b). Reduced working memory mediates the link between early institutional rearing and symptoms of ADHD at 12 years. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(1850). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01850.
van Dongen-Boomsma, M., Vollebregt, M. A., Buitelaar, J. K., & Slaats-Willemse, D. (2014). Working memory training in young children with ADHD: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 55(8), 886–896. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12218.
Vernon-Feagans, L., Cox, M., & the Family Life Project Investigators. (2013). The family life project: An epidemiological and developmental study of young children living in poor rural communities. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 78(5), 1–150, vii. https://doi.org/10.1111/mono.12046.
Wahlstedt, C., Thorell, L. B., & Bohlin, G. (2009). Heterogeneity in ADHD: Neuropsychological pathways, comorbidity and symptom domains. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(4), 551–564.
Walton, E., Pingault, J. B., Cecil, C. A., Gaunt, T. R., Relton, C. L., Mill, J., & Barker, E. D. (2017). Epigenetic profiling of ADHD symptoms trajectories: A prospective, methylome-wide study. Molecular Psychiatry, 22(2), 250–256. https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2016.85.
Wender, P. H. (1975). The minimal brain dysfunction syndrome. Annual Review of Medicine, 26(1), 45–62. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.me.26.020175.000401.
Willcutt, E. G., Doyle, A. E., Nigg, J. T., Faraone, S. V., & Pennington, B. F. (2005). Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1336–1346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.02.006.
Willcutt, E. G., Nigg, J. T., Pennington, B. F., Solanto, M. V., Rohde, L. A., Tannock, R., . . . Lahey, B. B. (2012). Validity of DSM-IV attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom dimensions and subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology , 121(4), 991–1010. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027347.
Willoughby, M. T., Blair, C. B., Wirth, R. J., Greenberg, M., & the Family Life Project Investigators. (2010). The measurement of executive function at age 3 years: Psychometric properties and criterion validity of a new battery of tasks. Psychological Assessment, 22(2), 306–317. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018708.
Willoughby, M., & Blair, C. (2011). Test-retest reliability of a new executive function battery for use in early childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 17(6), 564–579. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2011.554390.
Willoughby, M. T., Blair, C. B., Wirth, R. J., Greenberg, M., & the Family Life Project Investigators. (2012a). The measurement of executive function at age 5: Psychometric properties and relationship to academic achievement. Psychological Assessment, 24(1), 226–239. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025361.
Willoughby, M. T., Pek, J., Greenberg, M. T., & the Family Life Project Investigators. (2012b). Parent-reported attention deficit/hyperactivity symptomatology in preschool-aged children: Factor structure, developmental change, and early risk factors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(8), 1301–1312. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9641-8.
Willoughby, M. T., Wirth, R. J., Blair, C. B., & the Family Life Project Investigators. (2012c). Executive function in early childhood: Longitudinal measurement invariance and developmental change. Psychological Assessment, 24(2), 418–431. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025779.
Willoughby, M. T., & Blair, C. B. (2016). Longitudinal measurement of executive function in preschoolers. In J. Griffin, L. Freund, & P. McCardle (Eds.), Executive function in preschool age children: Integrating measurement, neurodevelopment and translational research (pp. 91–113). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press. https://doi.org/10.1037/14797-005.
Willoughby, M. T., Blair, C. B., & the Family Life Project Investigators. (2016). Measuring executive function in early childhood: A case for formative measurement. Psychological Assessment, 28(3), 319–330. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000152.
Willoughby, M. T., Kuhn, L. J., Blair, C. B., Samek, A., & List, J. A. (2017). The test-retest reliability of the latent construct of executive function depends on whether tasks are represented as formative or reflective indicators. Child Neuropsychology, 23(7), 822–837.
Wooldridge, J. M. (2002). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Zametkin, A. J., & Rapoport, J. L. (1987). Neurobiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity: Where have we come in 50 years? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(5), 676–686. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-198709000-00011.
- Using Repeated-Measures Data to Make Stronger Tests of the Association between Executive Function Skills and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptomatology in Early Childhood
Michael T. Willoughby
Amanda C. Wylie
Clancy B. Blair
- Springer US
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
An official publication of the International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology
Print ISSN: 0091-0627
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2835