Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research 2/2018

08-05-2017 | Original Article

Using Motivational Interviewing to Manage Process Markers of Ambivalence and Resistance in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Auteurs: Henny A. Westra, Nikoo Norouzian

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 2/2018

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Resistance can be a substantive problem that limits treatment efficacy in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Resistance often arises in a context of client ambivalence about change and has been consistently found to be exacerbated by directive responses and reduced by supportive ones. When not properly managed, resistance can have detrimental consequences for the therapeutic alliance and both proximal (e.g., engagement, homework compliance) and distal (e.g., symptom severity) treatment outcomes. Given its impact, resistance should be considered a key process marker in CBT. Motivational interviewing (MI) provides strategies for ‘rolling with resistance’ and there is mounting evidence that it can be successfully integrated with CBT to improve overall treatment response. This paper will review the research on resistance and ambivalence, particularly research conducted in the context of CBT. MI and its ability to successfully address these impasses will be outlined in detail, together with a clinical illustration.
Voetnoten
1
Greater elaboration and more examples of how MI can be integrated within CBT for anxiety are available from Westra (2012).
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Amodeo, M., Lundgren, L., Cohen, A., Rose, D., Chassler, D., Beltrame, C., & D’Ippolito, M. (2011). Barriers to implementing evidence-based practices in addiction treatment programs: Comparing staff reports on motivational interviewing, adolescent community reinforcement approach, assertive community treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Evaluation and Program Planning, 34, 382–389. CrossRefPubMed Amodeo, M., Lundgren, L., Cohen, A., Rose, D., Chassler, D., Beltrame, C., & D’Ippolito, M. (2011). Barriers to implementing evidence-based practices in addiction treatment programs: Comparing staff reports on motivational interviewing, adolescent community reinforcement approach, assertive community treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Evaluation and Program Planning, 34, 382–389. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Arkowitz, H., & Westra, H. A. (2004). Integrating motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of depression and anxiety. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 18, 337–350. CrossRef Arkowitz, H., & Westra, H. A. (2004). Integrating motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of depression and anxiety. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 18, 337–350. CrossRef
go back to reference Arkowitz, H., Westra, H. A., Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2008). Motivational interviewing in the treatment of psychological problems. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Arkowitz, H., Westra, H. A., Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2008). Motivational interviewing in the treatment of psychological problems. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Aspland, H., Llewelyn, S., Hardy, G. E., Barkham, M., & Stiles, W. (2008). Alliance ruptures and rupture resolution in cognitive-behavior therapy: A preliminary task analysis. Psychotherapy Research, 18, 699–710. CrossRefPubMed Aspland, H., Llewelyn, S., Hardy, G. E., Barkham, M., & Stiles, W. (2008). Alliance ruptures and rupture resolution in cognitive-behavior therapy: A preliminary task analysis. Psychotherapy Research, 18, 699–710. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Aviram, A., & Westra, H. A. (2011). The impact of motivational interviewing on resistance in cognitive behavioural therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Psychotherapy Research, 21, 698–708. CrossRefPubMed Aviram, A., & Westra, H. A. (2011). The impact of motivational interviewing on resistance in cognitive behavioural therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Psychotherapy Research, 21, 698–708. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Aviram, A., Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2016). Responsive management of early resistance in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(9), 783–794. CrossRefPubMed Aviram, A., Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2016). Responsive management of early resistance in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(9), 783–794. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Beutler, L. E., Harwood, T. M., Michelson, A., Song, X., & Holman, J. (2011). Resistance/reactance level. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67, 133–142. CrossRefPubMed Beutler, L. E., Harwood, T. M., Michelson, A., Song, X., & Holman, J. (2011). Resistance/reactance level. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67, 133–142. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Beutler, L. E., Moleiro, C. M., & Talebi, H. (2002a). Resistance. In J. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients (pp. 129–144). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Beutler, L. E., Moleiro, C. M., & Talebi, H. (2002a). Resistance. In J. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients (pp. 129–144). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Beutler, L. E., Moleiro, C. M., & Talebi, H. (2002b). Resistance in psychotherapy: What conclusions are supported by research. Journal of Clinical Psychology In Session: Psychotherapy in Practice, 58, 207–217. CrossRef Beutler, L. E., Moleiro, C. M., & Talebi, H. (2002b). Resistance in psychotherapy: What conclusions are supported by research. Journal of Clinical Psychology In Session: Psychotherapy in Practice, 58, 207–217. CrossRef
go back to reference Binder, J. L., & Strupp, H. H. (1997). “Negative process”: A recurrently discovered and underestimated facet of therapeutic process and outcome in the individual psychotherapy of adults. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 4, 121–139. Binder, J. L., & Strupp, H. H. (1997). “Negative process”: A recurrently discovered and underestimated facet of therapeutic process and outcome in the individual psychotherapy of adults. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 4, 121–139.
go back to reference Boswell, J. F., Gallagher, M. W., Sauer-Zavala, S. E., Bullis, J., Gorman, J. M., Shear, M. K., & Barlow, D. H. (2013). Patient characteristics and variability in adherence and competence in cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 443–454. CrossRefPubMed Boswell, J. F., Gallagher, M. W., Sauer-Zavala, S. E., Bullis, J., Gorman, J. M., Shear, M. K., & Barlow, D. H. (2013). Patient characteristics and variability in adherence and competence in cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 443–454. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Buckner, J. D., & Schmidt, N. B. (2009). A randomized pilot study of motivation enhancement therapy to increase utilization of cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety. Behavior Research and Therapy, 47(8), 710–715. CrossRef Buckner, J. D., & Schmidt, N. B. (2009). A randomized pilot study of motivation enhancement therapy to increase utilization of cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety. Behavior Research and Therapy, 47(8), 710–715. CrossRef
go back to reference Burns, D. D., & Auerbach, A. (1996). Therapeutic empathy in cognitive-behavioural therapy: Does it really make a difference? In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Frontiers of cognitive therapy (pp. 135–164). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Burns, D. D., & Auerbach, A. (1996). Therapeutic empathy in cognitive-behavioural therapy: Does it really make a difference? In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Frontiers of cognitive therapy (pp. 135–164). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
go back to reference Button, M. L., Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2016). Client Ambivalence as a Moderator of Treatment Outcomes in MI and CBT for Generalized Anxiety. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration, Dublin, Ireland. Button, M. L., Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2016). Client Ambivalence as a Moderator of Treatment Outcomes in MI and CBT for Generalized Anxiety. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration, Dublin, Ireland.
go back to reference Button, M. L., Westra, H. A., & Hara, K. M. (2014). Ambivalence and homework compliance in CBT. Paper presented at the Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration (SEPI) 30th Annual International Meeting, Montreal, QC. Button, M. L., Westra, H. A., & Hara, K. M. (2014). Ambivalence and homework compliance in CBT. Paper presented at the Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration (SEPI) 30th Annual International Meeting, Montreal, QC.
go back to reference Cassidy, J., & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.). (1999). Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Cassidy, J., & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.). (1999). Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Castonguay, L. G., Goldfried, M. R., Wiser, S., Raue, P. J., & Hayes, A. M. (1996). Predicting the effect of cognitive therapy for depression: A study of unique and common factors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 497–504. CrossRefPubMed Castonguay, L. G., Goldfried, M. R., Wiser, S., Raue, P. J., & Hayes, A. M. (1996). Predicting the effect of cognitive therapy for depression: A study of unique and common factors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 497–504. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Chamberlain, P., Davis, J. P., Forgatch, M., Frey, J., Patterson, G. R., Ray, J., Rothschild, A., & Trombley, J. (1985). The Therapy Process Code: A Multidimensional System for Observing Therapist and Client Interactions. Unpublished coding manual. Chamberlain, P., Davis, J. P., Forgatch, M., Frey, J., Patterson, G. R., Ray, J., Rothschild, A., & Trombley, J. (1985). The Therapy Process Code: A Multidimensional System for Observing Therapist and Client Interactions. Unpublished coding manual.
go back to reference Chamberlain, P., Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., Kavanagh, K., & Forgatch, M. S. (1984). Observation of Client Resistance. Behavior Therapy, 15, 144–155. CrossRef Chamberlain, P., Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., Kavanagh, K., & Forgatch, M. S. (1984). Observation of Client Resistance. Behavior Therapy, 15, 144–155. CrossRef
go back to reference Constantino, M. J., Castonguay, L. G., & Schut, A. J. (2002). The working alliance: A flagship for the “scientist-practitioner” model in psychotherapy. In G. S. Tryon (Ed.), Counseling based on process research: Applying what we know (pp. 81–131). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Constantino, M. J., Castonguay, L. G., & Schut, A. J. (2002). The working alliance: A flagship for the “scientist-practitioner” model in psychotherapy. In G. S. Tryon (Ed.), Counseling based on process research: Applying what we know (pp. 81–131). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
go back to reference Constantino, M. J., Glass, C. R., Arnkoff, D. B., Ametrano, R. M., & Smith, J. Z. (2011). Expectations. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Evidence based responsiveness (2nd edn., pp 354–376). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. CrossRef Constantino, M. J., Glass, C. R., Arnkoff, D. B., Ametrano, R. M., & Smith, J. Z. (2011). Expectations. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Evidence based responsiveness (2nd edn., pp 354–376). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Constantino, M. J., Westra, H. A., & Antony, M. M. (2015). Mediators of treatment effects in a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of augmenting CBT with motivational interviewing for severe generalized anxiety disorder. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Philadelphia, PA. Constantino, M. J., Westra, H. A., & Antony, M. M. (2015). Mediators of treatment effects in a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of augmenting CBT with motivational interviewing for severe generalized anxiety disorder. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Philadelphia, PA.
go back to reference Constantino, M. J., Westra, H. A., Antony, M. M., & Coyne, A. E. (2016). Integrative motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: Secondary outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration, Dublin, Ireland. Constantino, M. J., Westra, H. A., Antony, M. M., & Coyne, A. E. (2016). Integrative motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: Secondary outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration, Dublin, Ireland.
go back to reference Coutinho, J., Ribeiro, E., Hill, C., & Safran, J. (2011). Therapists’ and clients’ experiences of alliance ruptures: A qualitative study. Psychotherapy Research, 21(5), 525–540. CrossRefPubMed Coutinho, J., Ribeiro, E., Hill, C., & Safran, J. (2011). Therapists’ and clients’ experiences of alliance ruptures: A qualitative study. Psychotherapy Research, 21(5), 525–540. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cumming, J. A., Hayes, A. M., Newman, C. F., & Beck, A. T. (2011). Navigating therapeutic alliance ruptures in cognitive therapy for avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders and comorbid axis I disorders. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 4(4), 397–414. CrossRef Cumming, J. A., Hayes, A. M., Newman, C. F., & Beck, A. T. (2011). Navigating therapeutic alliance ruptures in cognitive therapy for avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders and comorbid axis I disorders. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 4(4), 397–414. CrossRef
go back to reference Francis, N., Rollnick, S., McCambridge, J., Butler, C., Lane, C., & Hood, K. (2005). When smokers are resistant to change: Experimental analysis of the effect of patient resistance on practitioner behaviour. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 100, 1175–1182. CrossRef Francis, N., Rollnick, S., McCambridge, J., Butler, C., Lane, C., & Hood, K. (2005). When smokers are resistant to change: Experimental analysis of the effect of patient resistance on practitioner behaviour. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 100, 1175–1182. CrossRef
go back to reference Gilbert, P. (1993). Defence and safety: Their function in social behaviour and psychopathology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32, 131–153. CrossRefPubMed Gilbert, P. (1993). Defence and safety: Their function in social behaviour and psychopathology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32, 131–153. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gilbert, P. (2010). Attachment and the importance of affection. In P. Gilbert (Ed.), Compassion focused therapy (pp. 39–42). New York, NY: Routledge. Gilbert, P. (2010). Attachment and the importance of affection. In P. Gilbert (Ed.), Compassion focused therapy (pp. 39–42). New York, NY: Routledge.
go back to reference Goodwin, B. J., Constantino, M. J., Westra, H. A., Button, M. L., & Antony, M. M. (2015). Motivational language as a predictor of change and time to response in psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Philadelphia, USA. Goodwin, B. J., Constantino, M. J., Westra, H. A., Button, M. L., & Antony, M. M. (2015). Motivational language as a predictor of change and time to response in psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Philadelphia, USA.
go back to reference Hara, K. M., Westra, H. A., Aviram, A., Button, M. L., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2015). Therapist awareness of client resistance in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 44, 162–174. CrossRef Hara, K. M., Westra, H. A., Aviram, A., Button, M. L., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2015). Therapist awareness of client resistance in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 44, 162–174. CrossRef
go back to reference Hara, K. M., Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2016). Therapist awareness of client-identified alliance ruptures in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration, Dublin, Ireland. Hara, K. M., Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2016). Therapist awareness of client-identified alliance ruptures in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration, Dublin, Ireland.
go back to reference Hettema, J., Steele, J., & Miller, W. R. (2005). Motivational interviewing. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1(1), 91–111. CrossRefPubMed Hettema, J., Steele, J., & Miller, W. R. (2005). Motivational interviewing. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1(1), 91–111. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Horvath, A. O., & Symonds, B. D. (1991). Relation between working alliance and outcome in psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 139–149. CrossRef Horvath, A. O., & Symonds, B. D. (1991). Relation between working alliance and outcome in psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 139–149. CrossRef
go back to reference Hunter, J. A., Button, M. L., & Westra, H. A. (2014). Ambivalence and alliance ruptures in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, 43(3), 201–208. CrossRef Hunter, J. A., Button, M. L., & Westra, H. A. (2014). Ambivalence and alliance ruptures in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, 43(3), 201–208. CrossRef
go back to reference Ilgen, M. A., McKellar, J., Moos, R., & Finney, J. W. (2006). Therapeutic alliance and the relationship between motivation and treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 31(2), 157–162. CrossRefPubMed Ilgen, M. A., McKellar, J., Moos, R., & Finney, J. W. (2006). Therapeutic alliance and the relationship between motivation and treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 31(2), 157–162. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Jungbluth, N. J., & Shirk, S. R. (2009). Therapist strategies for building involvement in cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 77, 1179–1184. CrossRef Jungbluth, N. J., & Shirk, S. R. (2009). Therapist strategies for building involvement in cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 77, 1179–1184. CrossRef
go back to reference Kennard, B. D., Ginsburg, G. S., Feeny, N. C., Sweeney, M., & Zakurski, R. (2005). Implementation Challenges to TADS Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 12, 230–239. CrossRef Kennard, B. D., Ginsburg, G. S., Feeny, N. C., Sweeney, M., & Zakurski, R. (2005). Implementation Challenges to TADS Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 12, 230–239. CrossRef
go back to reference Kertes, A., Westra, H. A., Angus, L., & Marcus, M. (2011). Client experiences of cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: The impact of adding motivational interviewing. Cognitive & Behavioural Practice, 18, 55–69. CrossRef Kertes, A., Westra, H. A., Angus, L., & Marcus, M. (2011). Client experiences of cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: The impact of adding motivational interviewing. Cognitive & Behavioural Practice, 18, 55–69. CrossRef
go back to reference Lombardi, D., Button, M., & Westra, H. A. (2014). Measuring motivation: Change talk and counter-change talk in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, 43, 12–21. CrossRef Lombardi, D., Button, M., & Westra, H. A. (2014). Measuring motivation: Change talk and counter-change talk in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, 43, 12–21. CrossRef
go back to reference Mamedova, K., Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2016). Initial Expectations as a Moderator of the Impact of Resistance on Outcome Expectations in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration, Dublin, Ireland. Mamedova, K., Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2016). Initial Expectations as a Moderator of the Impact of Resistance on Outcome Expectations in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration, Dublin, Ireland.
go back to reference Marcus, M., Westra, H. A., Angus, L., & Kertes, A. (2011). Client experiences of motivational interviewing for generalized anxiety disorder: A qualitative analysis. Psychotherapy Research, 21, 447–461. CrossRefPubMed Marcus, M., Westra, H. A., Angus, L., & Kertes, A. (2011). Client experiences of motivational interviewing for generalized anxiety disorder: A qualitative analysis. Psychotherapy Research, 21, 447–461. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McAleavey, A. A., Castonguay, L. G., & Goldfried, M. R. (2014). Clinical experiences in conducting cognitive-behavioral therapy for social phobia. Behavior Therapy, 45, 21–35. CrossRefPubMed McAleavey, A. A., Castonguay, L. G., & Goldfried, M. R. (2014). Clinical experiences in conducting cognitive-behavioral therapy for social phobia. Behavior Therapy, 45, 21–35. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Merlo, L. J., Storch, E. A., Lehmkuhl, H. D., Jacob, M. L., Muprhy, T. K., Goodman, W. K., & Geffken, G. R. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy plus motivational interviewing improves outcome for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: A preliminary study. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, 39(1), 24–27. CrossRef Merlo, L. J., Storch, E. A., Lehmkuhl, H. D., Jacob, M. L., Muprhy, T. K., Goodman, W. K., & Geffken, G. R. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy plus motivational interviewing improves outcome for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: A preliminary study. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, 39(1), 24–27. CrossRef
go back to reference Miller, W. R., Benefield, R. G., & Tonigan, J. S. (1993). Enhancing motivation for change in problem drinking: A controlled comparison of two counselor styles. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 455–461. CrossRefPubMed Miller, W. R., Benefield, R. G., & Tonigan, J. S. (1993). Enhancing motivation for change in problem drinking: A controlled comparison of two counselor styles. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 455–461. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2012). Motivational interviewing: Helping people change (3rd edn.). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2012). Motivational interviewing: Helping people change (3rd edn.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Moyers, T. B., & Rollnick, S. (2002). A motivational interviewing perspective on resistance in psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(2), 185–193. CrossRefPubMed Moyers, T. B., & Rollnick, S. (2002). A motivational interviewing perspective on resistance in psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(2), 185–193. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Muran, J. C., Safran, J. D., Gorman, B. S., Wallner-Samstag, L., Eubanks-Carter, C., & Winston, A. (2009). The relationship of early alliance ruptures and their resolution to process and outcome in three time-limited psychotherapies for personality disorders. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46(2), 233–248. CrossRef Muran, J. C., Safran, J. D., Gorman, B. S., Wallner-Samstag, L., Eubanks-Carter, C., & Winston, A. (2009). The relationship of early alliance ruptures and their resolution to process and outcome in three time-limited psychotherapies for personality disorders. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46(2), 233–248. CrossRef
go back to reference Murphy, R. T. (2008). Enhancing combat veterans’ motivation to change posttraumatic stress disorders symptoms and other problem behaviors. In H. Arkowitz, H. A. Westra, W. R. Miller, et al., (Eds.), Motivational interviewing in the treatment of psychological problems (pp. 85–108). New York, NY: Guliford Press. Murphy, R. T. (2008). Enhancing combat veterans’ motivation to change posttraumatic stress disorders symptoms and other problem behaviors. In H. Arkowitz, H. A. Westra, W. R. Miller, et al., (Eds.), Motivational interviewing in the treatment of psychological problems (pp. 85–108). New York, NY: Guliford Press.
go back to reference Orlinsky, D. E., Grawe, K., & Parks, B. K. (1994). Process and outcome in psychotherapy: Noch einmal. In A. E. Bergin & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behaviour change (4th edn., pp. 270–376). Oxford: John Wiley & Sons. Orlinsky, D. E., Grawe, K., & Parks, B. K. (1994). Process and outcome in psychotherapy: Noch einmal. In A. E. Bergin & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behaviour change (4th edn., pp. 270–376). Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
go back to reference Patterson, G. R., & Forgatch, M. S. (1985). Therapist behavior as a determinant for client noncompliance: A paradox for the behavior modifier. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 845–851. CrossRef Patterson, G. R., & Forgatch, M. S. (1985). Therapist behavior as a determinant for client noncompliance: A paradox for the behavior modifier. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 845–851. CrossRef
go back to reference Piper, W. E., Ogrodniczuk, J. S., Joyce, A. S., McCallum, M., Rosie, J. S., O’Kelly, J. G., et al. (1999). Prediction of dropping out in time-limited, interpretive individual psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 36, 114–122. CrossRef Piper, W. E., Ogrodniczuk, J. S., Joyce, A. S., McCallum, M., Rosie, J. S., O’Kelly, J. G., et al. (1999). Prediction of dropping out in time-limited, interpretive individual psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 36, 114–122. CrossRef
go back to reference Rogers, C. R. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
go back to reference Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 95–103. CrossRefPubMed Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 95–103. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rogers, C. R. (1965). Client-centered therapy: It`s current practice, implications, and theory. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. (1965). Client-centered therapy: It`s current practice, implications, and theory. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
go back to reference Rogers, C. R. (1980). A way of being. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. (1980). A way of being. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
go back to reference Rollnick, S., & Miller, W. R. (1995). What is motivational interviewing? Behavioral & Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 325–334. CrossRef Rollnick, S., & Miller, W. R. (1995). What is motivational interviewing? Behavioral & Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 325–334. CrossRef
go back to reference Rollnick, S., Miller, W. R., & Butler, C. C. (2007). Motivational interviewing in health care: Helping patients change behavior. New York, NY: Guliford Press. Rollnick, S., Miller, W. R., & Butler, C. C. (2007). Motivational interviewing in health care: Helping patients change behavior. New York, NY: Guliford Press.
go back to reference Safran, J. D., & Muran, J. C. (2000). Negotiating the therapeutic alliance: A relational treatment guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Safran, J. D., & Muran, J. C. (2000). Negotiating the therapeutic alliance: A relational treatment guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Safran, J. D., Muran, J. C., & Eubanks-Carter, C. (2011). Repairing alliance ruptures. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Evidence-based responsiveness (2nd edn., pp. 224–238). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. CrossRef Safran, J. D., Muran, J. C., & Eubanks-Carter, C. (2011). Repairing alliance ruptures. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Evidence-based responsiveness (2nd edn., pp. 224–238). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Sheldon, K., Williams, G., & Joiner, T. (2003). Motivating physical and mental health: Applying self-determination theory in the clinic. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. CrossRef Sheldon, K., Williams, G., & Joiner, T. (2003). Motivating physical and mental health: Applying self-determination theory in the clinic. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Sijercic, I., Button, M. L., Westra, H. A., & Hara, K. M. (2016). The interpersonal context of client motivational language in cognitive behavioral therapy. Psychotherapy, 53, 13–21. CrossRefPubMed Sijercic, I., Button, M. L., Westra, H. A., & Hara, K. M. (2016). The interpersonal context of client motivational language in cognitive behavioral therapy. Psychotherapy, 53, 13–21. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Strupp, H. H. (1980). Success and failure in time-limited psychotherapy: Further evidence. (Comparison 4). Archives of General Psychiatry, 37(8), 947–954. CrossRefPubMed Strupp, H. H. (1980). Success and failure in time-limited psychotherapy: Further evidence. (Comparison 4). Archives of General Psychiatry, 37(8), 947–954. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Szkodny, L. E., Newman, M. G., & Goldfried, M. R. (2014). Clinical experiences in conducting empirically supported treatments for generalized anxiety disorder. Behavior Therapy, 45, 7–20. CrossRefPubMed Szkodny, L. E., Newman, M. G., & Goldfried, M. R. (2014). Clinical experiences in conducting empirically supported treatments for generalized anxiety disorder. Behavior Therapy, 45, 7–20. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Van Voorhes, B. W., Fogel, J., Reinecke, M. A., Gladstone, T., Stuart, S., Gollan, J., et al. (2009). Randomized clinical trial of an Internet-based depression prevention program for adolescents (Project CATCH-IT) in primary care: 12-week outcomes. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 30(1), 23–37. CrossRef Van Voorhes, B. W., Fogel, J., Reinecke, M. A., Gladstone, T., Stuart, S., Gollan, J., et al. (2009). Randomized clinical trial of an Internet-based depression prevention program for adolescents (Project CATCH-IT) in primary care: 12-week outcomes. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 30(1), 23–37. CrossRef
go back to reference Viklund, E., Holmqvist, R., & Nelson, K. Z. (2010). Client-identified important events in psychotherapy: Interactional structures and practices. Psychotherapy Research, 20(2), 151–164. CrossRefPubMed Viklund, E., Holmqvist, R., & Nelson, K. Z. (2010). Client-identified important events in psychotherapy: Interactional structures and practices. Psychotherapy Research, 20(2), 151–164. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Watson, J. C., & McMullen, E. J. (2005). An examination of therapist and client behaviour in high- and low-alliance sessions in cognitive-behavioural therapy and process experiential therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(3), 297–310. CrossRef Watson, J. C., & McMullen, E. J. (2005). An examination of therapist and client behaviour in high- and low-alliance sessions in cognitive-behavioural therapy and process experiential therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(3), 297–310. CrossRef
go back to reference Westra, H. A. (2012). Motivational Interviewing in the Treatment of Anxiety. New York, NY: Guilford. Westra, H. A. (2012). Motivational Interviewing in the Treatment of Anxiety. New York, NY: Guilford.
go back to reference Westra, H. A., Arkowitz, H., & Dozois, D. J. A. (2009). Adding a motivational interviewing pretreatment to cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 1106–1117. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Westra, H. A., Arkowitz, H., & Dozois, D. J. A. (2009). Adding a motivational interviewing pretreatment to cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 1106–1117. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Westra, H. A., Aviram, A., Connors, L., Kertes, A., & Ahmed, M. (2012). Therapist emotional reactions and client resistance in cognitive behavioral therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46, 163–172. CrossRef Westra, H. A., Aviram, A., Connors, L., Kertes, A., & Ahmed, M. (2012). Therapist emotional reactions and client resistance in cognitive behavioral therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46, 163–172. CrossRef
go back to reference Westra, H. A., Aviram, A., & Doell, F. (2011). Extending motivational interviewing to the treatment of major mental health problems: Current directions and evidence. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56, 643–650. CrossRefPubMed Westra, H. A., Aviram, A., & Doell, F. (2011). Extending motivational interviewing to the treatment of major mental health problems: Current directions and evidence. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56, 643–650. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Westra, H. A., Aviram, A., Kertes, A., Ahmed, M., & Connors, L. (2009). Manual for coding resistance in CBT for anxiety. Unpublished coding manual. Westra, H. A., Aviram, A., Kertes, A., Ahmed, M., & Connors, L. (2009). Manual for coding resistance in CBT for anxiety. Unpublished coding manual.
go back to reference Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2016). Integrating motivational interviewing with cognitive behavioral therapy for severe generalized anxiety disorder: An allegiance-controlled randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(9), 768–782. CrossRefPubMed Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2016). Integrating motivational interviewing with cognitive behavioral therapy for severe generalized anxiety disorder: An allegiance-controlled randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(9), 768–782. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Aviram, A. (2011). The impact of alliance ruptures on client outcome expectations in cognitive behavioral therapy. Psychotherapy Research, 21(4), 472–481. CrossRefPubMed Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Aviram, A. (2011). The impact of alliance ruptures on client outcome expectations in cognitive behavioral therapy. Psychotherapy Research, 21(4), 472–481. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Westra, H. A., & Dozois, D. J. A. (2006). Preparing clients for cognitive behavioral therapy: A randomized pilot study of motivational interviewing for anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30, 481–498. CrossRef Westra, H. A., & Dozois, D. J. A. (2006). Preparing clients for cognitive behavioral therapy: A randomized pilot study of motivational interviewing for anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30, 481–498. CrossRef
go back to reference Zickgraf, H. F., Chambless, D. L., McCarthy, K. S., Gallop, R., Sharpless, B. A., Milrod, B. L., & Barber, J. P. (2016). Interpersonal factors are associated with lower therapist adherence in cognitive-behavioural therapy for panic disorder. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 23(3), 272–284. CrossRefPubMed Zickgraf, H. F., Chambless, D. L., McCarthy, K. S., Gallop, R., Sharpless, B. A., Milrod, B. L., & Barber, J. P. (2016). Interpersonal factors are associated with lower therapist adherence in cognitive-behavioural therapy for panic disorder. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 23(3), 272–284. CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Using Motivational Interviewing to Manage Process Markers of Ambivalence and Resistance in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Auteurs
Henny A. Westra
Nikoo Norouzian
Publicatiedatum
08-05-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 2/2018
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-017-9857-6