Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 3/2017

07-12-2016 | Original Paper

Urban and Education Disparity for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

Auteurs: For-Wey Lung, Tung-Liang Chiang, Shio-Jean Lin, Bih-Ching Shu

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 3/2017

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study aimed to determine the optimal cut-off for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) screening in 66-month-old children, and to explore the distribution of ASD screening and diagnosis in Taiwan. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study dataset was used (N = 20,095). The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) cut-off point of 13/14 was considered optimal for screening of children at 66 months. More children were diagnosed with ASD in urban areas. Parents of children diagnosed with ASD had a higher level of education, but parents of children with a lower level of education were screened as being at higher risk of ASD. Urban disparity and parental level of education effected parental awareness of the illness and the rate of ASD diagnosis.
Literatuur
go back to reference American Academy of Pediatrics. Council on Children with Disabilities, Section on Developmental Behavior Pediatrics, Bright Futures Steering Committee, Medical Home Initiatives for Children with Special Needs Project Advisory Committee. (2006). Identifying infants and young children with developmental disorders in the medical home: An algorithm for developmental surveillance and screening. Pediatrics, 118, 405–420. CrossRef American Academy of Pediatrics. Council on Children with Disabilities, Section on Developmental Behavior Pediatrics, Bright Futures Steering Committee, Medical Home Initiatives for Children with Special Needs Project Advisory Committee. (2006). Identifying infants and young children with developmental disorders in the medical home: An algorithm for developmental surveillance and screening. Pediatrics, 118, 405–420. CrossRef
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th edn.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. CrossRef American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th edn.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. CrossRef
go back to reference Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2002 Principal Investigators, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders: Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, US: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 56, 12–28. Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2002 Principal Investigators, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders: Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, US: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 56, 12–28.
go back to reference Beuker, K. T., Schjølberg, S., Lie, K. K., Swinkels, S., Rommelse, N. N., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2014). ESAT and M-CHAT as screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders at 18 months in the general population: Issues of overlap and association with clinical referrals. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 23, 1081–1091. CrossRefPubMed Beuker, K. T., Schjølberg, S., Lie, K. K., Swinkels, S., Rommelse, N. N., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2014). ESAT and M-CHAT as screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders at 18 months in the general population: Issues of overlap and association with clinical referrals. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 23, 1081–1091. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006). Mental health in the United States: parental report of diagnosed autism in children aged 4–17 years—United States, 2003–2004. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 55, 481–486. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006). Mental health in the United States: parental report of diagnosed autism in children aged 4–17 years—United States, 2003–2004. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 55, 481–486.
go back to reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, US: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 58, 1–20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, US: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 58, 1–20.
go back to reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, US: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 61, 1–19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, US: MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 61, 1–19.
go back to reference Chakrabarti, S., Haubus, C., Dugmore, S., Orgill, G., & Devine, F. (2005). A model of early detection and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in young children. Infants and Young Children, 18, 200–211. CrossRef Chakrabarti, S., Haubus, C., Dugmore, S., Orgill, G., & Devine, F. (2005). A model of early detection and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in young children. Infants and Young Children, 18, 200–211. CrossRef
go back to reference Chen, C. Y., Liu, C. Y., Su, W. C., Huang, S. L., & Lin, K. M. (2008). Urbanicity-related variation in help-seeking and services utilization among preschool-age children with autism in Taiwan. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 489–497. CrossRefPubMed Chen, C. Y., Liu, C. Y., Su, W. C., Huang, S. L., & Lin, K. M. (2008). Urbanicity-related variation in help-seeking and services utilization among preschool-age children with autism in Taiwan. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 489–497. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Coo, H., Ouellette-Kuntz, H., Lam, M., Yu, C. T., Dewey, D., Bernier, F. P., et al. (2012). Correlates of age at diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in six Canadian regions. Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada, 32, 90–100. PubMed Coo, H., Ouellette-Kuntz, H., Lam, M., Yu, C. T., Dewey, D., Bernier, F. P., et al. (2012). Correlates of age at diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in six Canadian regions. Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada, 32, 90–100. PubMed
go back to reference Dumont-Mathieu, T., & Fein, D. (2005). Screening for autism in young children: The modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT) and other measures. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11, 253–262. CrossRefPubMed Dumont-Mathieu, T., & Fein, D. (2005). Screening for autism in young children: The modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT) and other measures. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11, 253–262. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Eaves, L. C., Wingert, H., & Ho, H. H. (2006). Screening for autism: Agreement with diagnosis. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 10, 229–242. CrossRef Eaves, L. C., Wingert, H., & Ho, H. H. (2006). Screening for autism: Agreement with diagnosis. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 10, 229–242. CrossRef
go back to reference Fombonne, E. (2009). Epidemiology of pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatric Research, 65, 591–598. CrossRefPubMed Fombonne, E. (2009). Epidemiology of pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatric Research, 65, 591–598. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gal, G., Abiri, L., Reichenberg, A., Gabis, L., & Gross, R. (2012). Time trends in reported autism spectrum disorders in Israel, 1986–2005. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 428–431. CrossRefPubMed Gal, G., Abiri, L., Reichenberg, A., Gabis, L., & Gross, R. (2012). Time trends in reported autism spectrum disorders in Israel, 1986–2005. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 428–431. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Guldan, G., Zeitlin, M., Beiser, A., Super, C., Gershoff, S., & Datta, S. (1993). Maternal education and child feeding practices in rural Bangladesh. Social Science and Medicine, 36, 925–935. CrossRefPubMed Guldan, G., Zeitlin, M., Beiser, A., Super, C., Gershoff, S., & Datta, S. (1993). Maternal education and child feeding practices in rural Bangladesh. Social Science and Medicine, 36, 925–935. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Inada, N., Koyama, T., Inokuchi, E., Kuroda, M., & Kamio, Y. (2011). Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 330–336. CrossRef Inada, N., Koyama, T., Inokuchi, E., Kuroda, M., & Kamio, Y. (2011). Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 330–336. CrossRef
go back to reference Johnson, C., & Myers, S. (2007). Identification and evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120, 1183–1215. CrossRefPubMed Johnson, C., & Myers, S. (2007). Identification and evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120, 1183–1215. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kendler, K. S. (1996). Parenting: A genetic-epidemiologic perspective. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 11–20. CrossRefPubMed Kendler, K. S. (1996). Parenting: A genetic-epidemiologic perspective. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 11–20. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kleinman, J. M., Robins, D. L., Ventola, P. E., Pandey, J., Boorstein, H. C., Esser, E. L., et al. (2008). The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: A follow-up study investigating the early detection of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 827–839. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Kleinman, J. M., Robins, D. L., Ventola, P. E., Pandey, J., Boorstein, H. C., Esser, E. L., et al. (2008). The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: A follow-up study investigating the early detection of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 827–839. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Koh, H. C., Lim, S. H., Chan, G. J., Lin, M. B., Lim, H. H., Choo, S. H., et al. (2014). The clinical utility of the modified checklist for autism in toddlers with high risk 18–48 month old children in Singapore. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 405–416. CrossRefPubMed Koh, H. C., Lim, S. H., Chan, G. J., Lin, M. B., Lim, H. H., Choo, S. H., et al. (2014). The clinical utility of the modified checklist for autism in toddlers with high risk 18–48 month old children in Singapore. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 405–416. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lai, D. C., Tseng, Y. C., Hou, Y. M., & Guo, H. R. (2012). Gender and geographic differences in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in children: Analysis of data from the national disability registry of Taiwan. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 909–915. CrossRefPubMed Lai, D. C., Tseng, Y. C., Hou, Y. M., & Guo, H. R. (2012). Gender and geographic differences in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in children: Analysis of data from the national disability registry of Taiwan. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 909–915. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lauritsen, M. B., Astrup, A., Pedersen, C. B., Obel, C., Schendel, D. E., Schieve, L., et al. (2014). Urbanicity and autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 394–404. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Lauritsen, M. B., Astrup, A., Pedersen, C. B., Obel, C., Schendel, D. E., Schieve, L., et al. (2014). Urbanicity and autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 394–404. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Lewis, D. A., Andreasson, A., & Allebeck, P. (1992). Schizophrenia and city life. Lancet, 340, 137–140. CrossRefPubMed Lewis, D. A., Andreasson, A., & Allebeck, P. (1992). Schizophrenia and city life. Lancet, 340, 137–140. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lung, F. W., Chiang, T. L., Lin, S. J., Feng, J. Y., Chen, P. F., & Shu, B. C. (2011). Gender differences of children’s developmental trajectory from 6 to 60 months in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Pilot Study. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 100–106. CrossRefPubMed Lung, F. W., Chiang, T. L., Lin, S. J., Feng, J. Y., Chen, P. F., & Shu, B. C. (2011). Gender differences of children’s developmental trajectory from 6 to 60 months in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Pilot Study. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 100–106. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lung, F. W., Chiang, T. L., Lin, S. J., Shu, B. C., & Lee, M. C. (2011a). Developing and refining the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS): 5 years of experience. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 2697–2703. CrossRefPubMed Lung, F. W., Chiang, T. L., Lin, S. J., Shu, B. C., & Lee, M. C. (2011a). Developing and refining the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS): 5 years of experience. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 2697–2703. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lung, F. W., Shu, B. C., Chiang, T. L., & Lin, S. J. (2010). Parental concerns based general developmental screening tool and autism risk: The Taiwan National Birth cohort study. Pediatric Research, 67, 226–231. CrossRefPubMed Lung, F. W., Shu, B. C., Chiang, T. L., & Lin, S. J. (2010). Parental concerns based general developmental screening tool and autism risk: The Taiwan National Birth cohort study. Pediatric Research, 67, 226–231. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lung, F. W., Tzeng, D. S., & Shu, B. C. (2002). Ethnic heterogeneity in allele variation in the DRD4 gene in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 57, 239–245. CrossRefPubMed Lung, F. W., Tzeng, D. S., & Shu, B. C. (2002). Ethnic heterogeneity in allele variation in the DRD4 gene in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 57, 239–245. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Macdonald, P. D. M., & Pitcher, T. J. (1979). Age-groups form size-frequency data: A versatile and efficient method of analyzing distribution mixtures. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 36, 987–1001. CrossRef Macdonald, P. D. M., & Pitcher, T. J. (1979). Age-groups form size-frequency data: A versatile and efficient method of analyzing distribution mixtures. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 36, 987–1001. CrossRef
go back to reference Mandell, D. S., Morales, K. H., Xie, M., Lawer, L. J., Stahmer, A. C., & Marcus, S. C. (2010). Age of diagnosis among Medicaid-enrolled children with autism, 2001–2004. Psychiatric Services, 61, 822–829. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Mandell, D. S., Morales, K. H., Xie, M., Lawer, L. J., Stahmer, A. C., & Marcus, S. C. (2010). Age of diagnosis among Medicaid-enrolled children with autism, 2001–2004. Psychiatric Services, 61, 822–829. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Mandell, D. S., Novak, M. M., & Zubritsky, C. D. (2005). Factors associated with age of diagnosis among children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 116, 1480–1486. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Mandell, D. S., Novak, M. M., & Zubritsky, C. D. (2005). Factors associated with age of diagnosis among children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 116, 1480–1486. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Matson, J. L., & Kozlowski, A. M. (2011). The increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 418–425. CrossRef Matson, J. L., & Kozlowski, A. M. (2011). The increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 418–425. CrossRef
go back to reference Mawle, E., & Griffiths, P. (2006). Screening for autism in pre-school children in primary care: Systematic review of English Language tools. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43, 623–636. CrossRefPubMed Mawle, E., & Griffiths, P. (2006). Screening for autism in pre-school children in primary care: Systematic review of English Language tools. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43, 623–636. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McHorney, C. A., Ware, J. E., Lu, J. F. R., & Sherboume, C. D. (1994). The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): III. Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions and reliability across divers patient groups. Medical Care, 32, 40–66. CrossRefPubMed McHorney, C. A., Ware, J. E., Lu, J. F. R., & Sherboume, C. D. (1994). The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): III. Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions and reliability across divers patient groups. Medical Care, 32, 40–66. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McLachlan, G.J., & Basford, K. E. (1988). Mixture Models: Inference and Applications to Clustering. New York: Marcel Dekker. McLachlan, G.J., & Basford, K. E. (1988). Mixture Models: Inference and Applications to Clustering. New York: Marcel Dekker.
go back to reference Overall, J. E. (1989). Contradictions can never a paradox resolve. Applied Psychological Measurement, 13, 426–428. CrossRef Overall, J. E. (1989). Contradictions can never a paradox resolve. Applied Psychological Measurement, 13, 426–428. CrossRef
go back to reference Pandey, J., Verbalis, A., Robins, D. L., Boorstein, H., Klin, A. M., Babitz, T., et al. (2008). Screening for autism in older and younger toddlers with the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 12, 513–535. CrossRef Pandey, J., Verbalis, A., Robins, D. L., Boorstein, H., Klin, A. M., Babitz, T., et al. (2008). Screening for autism in older and younger toddlers with the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 12, 513–535. CrossRef
go back to reference Parner, E. T., Schendel, D. E., & Thorsen, P. (2008). Autism prevalence trends over time in Denmark: Changes in prevalence and age at diagnosis. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 162, 1150–1156. CrossRefPubMed Parner, E. T., Schendel, D. E., & Thorsen, P. (2008). Autism prevalence trends over time in Denmark: Changes in prevalence and age at diagnosis. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 162, 1150–1156. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Parner, E. T., Thorsen, P., Dixon, G., de Klerk, N., Leonard, H., Nassar, N., et al. (2011). A comparison of autism prevalence trends in Denmark and Western Australia. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1601–1608. CrossRefPubMed Parner, E. T., Thorsen, P., Dixon, G., de Klerk, N., Leonard, H., Nassar, N., et al. (2011). A comparison of autism prevalence trends in Denmark and Western Australia. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1601–1608. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Pinto-Martin, J. A., Young, L. M., Mandell, D. S., Poghosyan, L., Giarelli, E., & Levy, S. E. (2008). Screening strategies for autism spectrum disorders in pediatric primary care. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 29, 345–350. CrossRefPubMed Pinto-Martin, J. A., Young, L. M., Mandell, D. S., Poghosyan, L., Giarelli, E., & Levy, S. E. (2008). Screening strategies for autism spectrum disorders in pediatric primary care. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 29, 345–350. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Robins, D. L. (2008). Screening for autism spectrum disorders in primary care settings. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 12, 537–556. CrossRef Robins, D. L. (2008). Screening for autism spectrum disorders in primary care settings. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 12, 537–556. CrossRef
go back to reference Robins, D. L., Fein, D., Barton, M. L., & Green, J. A. (2001). The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: An initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 131–144. CrossRefPubMed Robins, D. L., Fein, D., Barton, M. L., & Green, J. A. (2001). The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: An initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 131–144. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rosenberg, R. E., Daniels, A. M., Law, J. K., Law, P. A., & Kaufmann, W. E. (2009). Trends in autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. 1994–2007. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1099–1111. CrossRefPubMed Rosenberg, R. E., Daniels, A. M., Law, J. K., Law, P. A., & Kaufmann, W. E. (2009). Trends in autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. 1994–2007. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1099–1111. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rutter, M. (2005). Incidence of autism spectrum disorders: Changes over time and their meaning. Acta Paediatrica, 94, 2–15. CrossRefPubMed Rutter, M. (2005). Incidence of autism spectrum disorders: Changes over time and their meaning. Acta Paediatrica, 94, 2–15. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Shu, B. C., Lo, W. J., & Lung, F. W. (1999). The reliability and validity of parental bonding instrument in Chinese version. Nursing Research, 7, 479–489. Shu, B. C., Lo, W. J., & Lung, F. W. (1999). The reliability and validity of parental bonding instrument in Chinese version. Nursing Research, 7, 479–489.
go back to reference Stenberg, N., Bresnahan, M., Gunnes, N., Hirtz, D., Hornig, M., Lie, K. K., et al. (2014). Identifying children with autism spectrum disorder at 18 months in a general population sample. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 28, 255–262. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Stenberg, N., Bresnahan, M., Gunnes, N., Hirtz, D., Hornig, M., Lie, K. K., et al. (2014). Identifying children with autism spectrum disorder at 18 months in a general population sample. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 28, 255–262. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Stoltenberg, C., Schjølberg, S., Bresnahan, M., Hornig, M., Hirtz, D., Dahl, C., et al (2010). The autism birth cohort: A paradigm for gene-environment-timing research. Molecular Psychiatry, 15, 676–680. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Stoltenberg, C., Schjølberg, S., Bresnahan, M., Hornig, M., Hirtz, D., Dahl, C., et al (2010). The autism birth cohort: A paradigm for gene-environment-timing research. Molecular Psychiatry, 15, 676–680. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Szklo, M., & Nieto, F. J. (2004). Epidemiology beyond the basics. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Szklo, M., & Nieto, F. J. (2004). Epidemiology beyond the basics. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
go back to reference Verheji, R. A. (1996). Explaining urban–rural variations in health: A review of interactions between individual and environment. Social Science and Medicine, 42, 923–935. CrossRef Verheji, R. A. (1996). Explaining urban–rural variations in health: A review of interactions between individual and environment. Social Science and Medicine, 42, 923–935. CrossRef
go back to reference Williams, J. G., Higgins, J. P. T., & Brayne, C. E. (2006). Systematic review of prevalence studies of autism spectrum disorders. Achieves of Disease in Childhood, 91, 8–15. CrossRef Williams, J. G., Higgins, J. P. T., & Brayne, C. E. (2006). Systematic review of prevalence studies of autism spectrum disorders. Achieves of Disease in Childhood, 91, 8–15. CrossRef
go back to reference Wing, L., & Potter, D. (2002). The epidemiology of autistic spectrum disorders: Is the prevalence rising? Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 8, 151–161. CrossRefPubMed Wing, L., & Potter, D. (2002). The epidemiology of autistic spectrum disorders: Is the prevalence rising? Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 8, 151–161. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wong, V., Hui, L. H., Lee, W. C., Leung, L. S., Ho, P. K., Lau, W. L., et al. (2004). A modified screening tool for autism [Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT-23)] for Chinese children. Pediatrics, 114, e166–e176. CrossRefPubMed Wong, V., Hui, L. H., Lee, W. C., Leung, L. S., Ho, P. K., Lau, W. L., et al. (2004). A modified screening tool for autism [Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT-23)] for Chinese children. Pediatrics, 114, e166–e176. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Yama, B., Freeman, T., Graves, E., Yuan, S., & Campbell, K. M. (2012). Examination of the properties of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in a population sample. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 23–24. CrossRef Yama, B., Freeman, T., Graves, E., Yuan, S., & Campbell, K. M. (2012). Examination of the properties of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in a population sample. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 23–24. CrossRef
go back to reference Zaroff, C. M., & Uhm, S. Y. (2012). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders and influence of country of measurement and ethnicity. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47, 395–398. CrossRefPubMed Zaroff, C. M., & Uhm, S. Y. (2012). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders and influence of country of measurement and ethnicity. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47, 395–398. CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Urban and Education Disparity for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan Birth Cohort Study
Auteurs
For-Wey Lung
Tung-Liang Chiang
Shio-Jean Lin
Bih-Ching Shu
Publicatiedatum
07-12-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 3/2017
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2980-5

Andere artikelen Uitgave 3/2017

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 3/2017 Naar de uitgave