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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 1/2016

24-10-2015 | Empirical Research

Up in Smoke: Neighborhood Contexts of Marijuana Use from Adolescence Through Young Adulthood

Auteur: Tara D. Warner

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 1/2016

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Abstract

The current understanding of the neighborhood contexts wherein adolescent substance use emerges remains limited by conflicting findings regarding geographic variation in, and neighborhood effects on, both the prevalence of and risk factors for such use. Using four waves of longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [n = 18,697 (51 % female, 54 % White, 24 % Black, 16 % Hispanic, 7 % Asian, 2 % American Indian/Other)], latent class analysis, and growth curve modeling, this study identified distinct neighborhood types—patterned by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic class, and geography—and explored how trajectories of adolescent and young adult marijuana use differed across neighborhood types. The results demonstrated complexity in neighborhood contexts, illustrating variation in trajectories of marijuana use across neighborhood types heretofore unobserved in neighborhoods research, and largely unexplained by key individual, family, and peer risk and protective factors. This approach highlights how social structural forces intersect and anchor trajectories of youth substance-using risk behavior.
Voetnoten
1
The U.S. Census does not delineate exurban (nor suburban) areas, and several studies have advanced a number of varying definitions (for a review, see Berube et al. 2006) involving combinations of housing density, population density, distance from metropolitan areas, and sociodemographic characteristics of the population. Given the lack of standardized definition(s), the limited availability of measures in the de-identified Add Health data, and the need for LCA model parsimony, the analyses included the fewest possible focal variables presumably needed to distinguish urban, surburban, and exurban places.
 
2
All analyses were unweighted. In order to properly incorporate weights in a multilevel model, weights must be available at all levels (StataCorp 2015). In the Add Health data, there is no weight available at the neighborhood (census tract) level—which serves as the third level in the current analyses.
 
3
The key distinction between (7) middle class White exurban and (4) affluent White suburban neighborhoods is that the former captured neighborhoods primarily located in the South.
 
4
For more on this debate, readers are encouraged to see Dannefer and Kelley-Moore’s (2009) discussion of agentic asymmetry (see also, Hawley 1992) and Settersten and Gannon’s (see also, Settersten and Andersson 2002; Settersten and Gannon 2005) discussion of agency within structure.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Up in Smoke: Neighborhood Contexts of Marijuana Use from Adolescence Through Young Adulthood
Auteur
Tara D. Warner
Publicatiedatum
24-10-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 1/2016
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0370-5