Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Past studies have investigated relationships between peer acceptance and peer-rated social behaviors. However, relatively little is known about the manner in which indices of well-being such as optimism and positive affect may predict peer acceptance above and beyond peer ratings of antisocial and prosocial behaviors. Early adolescence—roughly between the ages of 9 and 14—is a time in the life span in which individuals undergo a myriad of changes at many different levels, such as changes due to cognitive development, pubertal development, and social role redefinitions. The present study investigated the relationship of self-reported affective empathy, optimism, anxiety (trait measures), and positive affect (state measure) to peer-reported peer acceptance in 99 (43% girls) 4th and 5th grade early adolescents. Because our preliminary analyses revealed gender-specific patterns, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictors of peer acceptance separately for boys and for girls. Girls’ acceptance of peers was significantly predicted by higher levels of empathy and optimism, and lower positive affect. For boys, higher positive affect, lower empathy, and lower anxiety significantly predicted peer acceptance. The results emphasize the importance of including indices of social and emotional well-being in addition to peer-ratings in understanding peer acceptance in early adolescence, and urge for more research on gender-specific peer acceptance.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Asher, S. R., & McDonald, K. L. (2009). The behavioral basis of acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 232–248). New York: The Guilford Press.
Bell-Dolan, D., & Wessler, A. E. (1994). Ethical administration of sociometric measures: Procedures in use and suggestions for improvement. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 23–32. CrossRef
Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Hamilton, S. L., Sesma, A., Jr., Hong, K. L., & Roehlkepartain, E. C. (2006). Positive youth development so far: Core hypotheses and their implications for policy and practice. Search Institute Insights and Evidence, 3, 1–13.
Bukowski, W. M., Gauze, C., Hoza, B., & Newcomb, A. F. (1993). Differences and consistency between same-sex and other-sex peer relationships during early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 29, 255–263. CrossRef
Cillessen, A. H. N. (2009). Sociometric methods. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 82–99). New York: The Guilford Press.
Claes, M., & Simard, R. (1993). Friendship characteristics of delinquent adolescents. International Journal of Adolescence & Youth, 3, 287–301.
Clonan, S. M., Chafouleas, S. M., McDougal, J. L., & Riley-Tillman, T. C. (2004). Positive psychology goes to school: Are we there yet? Psychology in the Schools, 41, 101–110. CrossRef
Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Competence, autonomy, and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. R. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Self processes and development: The Minnesota symposia on child development (Vol. 23, pp. 43–78). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Damon, W. (2004). What is positive youth development? Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591, 13–24. CrossRef
Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personaliy and Social Psychology, 44, 113–126. CrossRef
Davis, T. (1995). Gender differences in masking negative emotions: Ability or motivation? Developmental Psychology, 31, 660–667. CrossRef
Decovic, M., & Gerris, J. R. M. (1994). Developmental analysis of social, cognitive and behavioral differences between popular and rejected children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 367–386. CrossRef
Dijkstra, J. K., Lindenberg, S., & Veenstra, R. (2007). Same-gender and cross-gender peer acceptance and peer rejection and their relation to bullying and helping among preadolescents: Comparing predictors from gender-homophily and goal-framing approaches. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1377–1389. CrossRefPubMed
Dougherty, L. R. (2006). Children’s emotionality and social status: A meta-analytic review. Social Development, 15, 394–417. CrossRef
Eccles, J. S. (1999). The development of children ages 6 to 14. The Future of Children: When School is Out, 9, 30–44.
Eccles, J. S., & Roeser, R. W. (2009). Schools, academic motivation, and stage-environment fit. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (3rd ed., pp. 404–434). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1990). Empathy: Conceptualization, measurement, and relation to prosocial behavior. Motivation and Emotion, 14, 131–149. CrossRef
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2006). Prosocial development. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology. Social, emotional, and personality development (Vol. 3, pp. 646–718). New York, NY: Wiley.
Erdley, C. A., Nangle, D. W., Newman, J. W., & Carpenter, E. M. (2001). Children’s friendship experiences and psychological adjustment: Theory and research. In D. W. Nangle & C. A. Erdley (Series Eds.) & W. Damon (Volume Ed.), New directions for child and adolescent development. The role of friendship in psychological adjustment (Vol. 91, pp. 5–24). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Flanagan, K. S., Erath, S. A., & Bierman, K. L. (2008). Unique associations between peer relations and social anxiety in early childhood. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39, 759–769. CrossRef
Georgiou, S. N., & Stavrinides, P. (2008). Bullies, victims, and bully-victims: Psychosocial profiles and attribution styles. School Psychology International, 29, 574–589. CrossRef
Greener, H. S. (2000). Peer assessment of children’s prosocial behavior. Journal of Moral Education, 29, 47–60. CrossRef
Huebner, E. S., & Gilman, R. (2003). Toward a focus on positive psychology in school psychology. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, 99–102. CrossRef
Hymel, S., Vaillancourt, T., McDougall, P., & Renshaw, P. D. (2002). Peer acceptance and rejection in childhood. In P. K. Smith & C. H. Hart (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of childhood social development (pp. 265–284). Oxford: Blackwell.
Jaffe, P. G., Wolfe, D., Crooks, C., Hughes, R., & Baker, L. L. (2004). The fourth “R”: Developing healthy relationships through school-based interventions. In P. G. Jaffe, L. L. Baker, & A. J. Cunningham (Eds.), Protecting children from domestic violence (pp. 200–218). New York: Guilford Press.
Juvonen, J., & Graham, S. (2001). Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized. New York: Guilford.
Kumpfer, K. L. (1999). Factors and processes contributing to resilience: The resilience framework. In M. Glantz & J. Johnson (Eds.), Resilience and development: Positive life adaptations (pp. 179–224). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
Kuperschmidt, J. B., & Coie, J. D. (1990). Preadolescent peer status, aggression, and school adjustment as predictors of externalizing problems in adolescence. Child Development, 61, 1350–1362. CrossRef
Kusche, C. A., Greenberg, M. T., & Beilke, R. (1988). Seattle personality questionnaire for young school-aged children. Seattle, OR: University of Washington, Department of Psychology.
Lafferty, J. (2004). The relationships between gender, empathy, and aggressive behaviours among early adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 64(12), 6377B.
Laurent, J., Cantanzaro, S., Joiner, T. E., Rudolph, K. D., Potter, K. I., Lambert, S., et al. (1999). A measure of positive affect for children: Scale development and preliminary validation. Psychological Assessment, 11, 326–338. CrossRef
Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005a). The benefits of positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 6, 803–855. CrossRef
Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005b). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111–131. CrossRef
McDougall, P., & Hymel, S. (2007). Same-gender versus cross-gender friendship conceptions: Similar of different? Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 53, 347–380. CrossRef
McDougall, P., Hymel, S., Vaillancourt, T., & Mercer, L. (2001). The consequences of childhood peer rejection. In M. Leary (Ed.), Interpersonal rejection (pp. 21–53). London: Oxford University Press.
Nangle, D. W., & Erdley, C. A. (2001). Editors’ notes. In D. W. Nangle & C. A. Erdley (Series Eds.) & W. Damon (Volume Ed.), New directions for child and adolescent development. The role of friendship in psychological adjustment (Vol. 91, pp. 1–4). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Nesdale, D., & Lambert, A. (2007). Effects of experimentally manipulated peer rejection on children’s negative affect, self-esteem, and maladaptive social behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 115–122. CrossRef
Noam, G. G., & Goldstein, L. S. (1998). The resiliency inventory. Unpublished Protocol.
Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links between peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29, 611–621. CrossRef
Parkhurst, J. T., & Asher, S. R. (1992). Peer rejection in middle school: Subgroup differences in behavior, loneliness, and interpersonal concerns. Developmental Psychology, 28, 231–241. CrossRef
Pellegrini, A. D. (2004). Sexual segregation in childhood: A review of evidence for two hypotheses. Animal Behaviour, 68, 435–443. CrossRef
Pepler, D. J., & Craig, M. W. (1998). Assessing children’s peer relationships. Child Psychology & Psychiatry Review, 3, 176–182. CrossRef
Rose, A. J. (2007). Structure, content, and socioemotional correlates of girls’ and boys’ friendships. Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 53, 489–506. CrossRef
Rose, A. J., & Smith, R. L. (2009). Sex differences in peer relationships. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 379–393). New York: The Guilford Press.
Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J. (2006). Peer interactions, relationships, and groups. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional and personality development (6th ed., pp. 571–645). New York: Wiley.
Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (1999). Relations of peer acceptance, friendship, adjustment, and social behavior to moral reasoning during early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 249–279. CrossRef
Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Buote, D., Jaramillo, A., & Foulkes, K. (2008). Happiness, optimism, and positive psychological traits during pre and early adolescence: Relations to parents, peers, and after school time. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research and Adolescence, Chicago, IL.
Schultz, D., Izard, C. E., Stapleton, L. M., Buckingham-Howes, S., & Bear, G. A. (2009). Children’s social status as a function of emotionality and attention control. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 169–181. CrossRef
Song, M. (2003). Two studies on the resiliency inventory (RI): Toward the goal of creating a culturally sensitive measure of adolescent resilience. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University.
Steinberg, L. (1990). Autonomy, conflict, and harmony in the family relationship. In S. S. Feldman & G. R. Elliott (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent (pp. 255–276). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Steinberg, L. (2005). Cognitive and affective development in adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9, 69–74. CrossRef
Sullivan, H. S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: Norton.
Terjesen, M., Jacofsky, M., Froh, J., & DiGiuseppe, R. (2004). Integrating positive psychology into schools: Implications for practice. Psychology in the Schools, 41, 163–172. CrossRef
Vaillancourt, T., & Hymel, S. (2006). Aggression and social status: The moderating roles of sex and peer valued characteristics. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 396–408. CrossRef
Vitaro, F., Boivin, M., & Bukowski, W. M. (2009). The role of friendship in child and adolescent development. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 568–585). New York: Guilford Press.
Walker, S. (2004). Teacher reports of social behavior and peer acceptance in early childhood: Sex and social status differences. Child Study Journal, 34, 13–28.
Walter, J. L., & LaFreniere, P. J. (2000). A naturalistic study of affective expression, social competence, and sociometric status. Early Education & Development, 11, 109–122. CrossRef
Wentzel, K. R. (1994). Relations of social goal pursuit to social acceptance, classroom behavior, and social support. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 173–186. CrossRef
Wentzel, K. R. (2003). School adjustment. In W. M. Reynolds & G. J. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Educational psychology (Vol. 7, pp. 235–258). New York: Wiley.
Wentzel, K. R. (2009). Peers and academic functioning at school. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 531–547). New York: The Guilford Press.
Wentzel, K. R., Barry, C., & Caldwell, K. (2004). Friendships in middle school: Influences on motivation and school adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 195–203. CrossRef
Wigfield, A., Byrnes, J. P., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Development during early and middle adolescence. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 87–113). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Younger, A. J., Schneider, B. H., Guirguis, M., & Bergeron, N. (2000). A behavior-based peer-nomination measure of social withdrawal. Social Development, 9, 544–564. CrossRef
- Understanding the Link Between Social and Emotional Well-Being and Peer Relations in Early Adolescence: Gender-Specific Predictors of Peer Acceptance
Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl
Kimberly C. Thomson
- Springer US