Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 10/2018

28-03-2018 | Original Paper

Triangular Interactions of Unmarried African American Mothers and Fathers with their 3-Month-Old Infants

Auteurs: Erica E. Coates, James P. McHale

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 10/2018

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

We examined the responsivity of unmarried African American fathers to bids from their 3-month-old infants during the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP), and the responses of mothers subsequent to father-baby exchanges. Twenty mother-father-infant triads (75% noncoresidential) with parents between the ages of 14 and 53 took part in the investigation. All fathers and the majority of mothers were African American with reported incomes at least 200% below the U.S. poverty line. All participants had previously completed a prenatal intervention study examining formation of coparenting alliances across their transitions to parenthood and were observed while playing together in videotaped LTP sessions at 3-months postpartum. We microanalyzed infants’ gaze orientation toward their fathers and the sequence of parent behaviors after babies’ bids to fathers. Father responses to bids from the infant were characterized as withdrawal, nonwithdrawal but failure to adapt behavior he had been showing prior to the baby’s bid, or affective and/or behavioral adjustment in response to the baby’s bid. Maternal reactions to the father-baby exchange were coded as either reinforcing, opposing, or neutral. Analyses revealed that fathers showed substantial evidence of intuitive parenting and matching behavior, and mothers overwhelmingly supported, rather than interfered with or disrupted, baby-father exchanges. Results are discussed in contradistinction to deceptive commonplace depictions of African American families that focus largely on deficits rather than strengths, and recommendations for family research and practice are offered.
Literatuur
go back to reference Allen, S. M., & Hawkins, A. J. (1999). Maternal gatekeeping: Mother’s beliefs and behaviors that inhibit greater father involvement in family work. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 199–212. CrossRef Allen, S. M., & Hawkins, A. J. (1999). Maternal gatekeeping: Mother’s beliefs and behaviors that inhibit greater father involvement in family work. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 199–212. CrossRef
go back to reference Amato, P. R. (2005). The impact of family formation change on the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the next generation. The Future of Children, 15, 75–96. CrossRefPubMed Amato, P. R. (2005). The impact of family formation change on the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the next generation. The Future of Children, 15, 75–96. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Amato, P. R. (1998). More than money? Men’s contributions to their children’s lives. In A. Booth SpringerAmpamp; A. Crouter (Eds.), Men in families: When do they get involved? What difference does it make? (pp. 241–278). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Amato, P. R. (1998). More than money? Men’s contributions to their children’s lives. In A. Booth SpringerAmpamp; A. Crouter (Eds.), Men in families: When do they get involved? What difference does it make? (pp. 241–278). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
go back to reference Blankenhorn, D. (1995). Fatherless America: Confronting our most urgent social problem. Scranton, PA: HarperCollins Publishers 18512. Blankenhorn, D. (1995). Fatherless America: Confronting our most urgent social problem. Scranton, PA: HarperCollins Publishers 18512.
go back to reference Boulware, L. E., Cooper, L. A., Ratner, L. E., LaVeist, T. A., & Powe, N. R. (2003). Race and trust in the health care system. Public Health Reports, 118, 358–365. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Boulware, L. E., Cooper, L. A., Ratner, L. E., LaVeist, T. A., & Powe, N. R. (2003). Race and trust in the health care system. Public Health Reports, 118, 358–365. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Cannon, E. A., Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., Mangelsdorf, S. C., Brown, G. L., & Sokolowski, M. S. (2008). Parent characteristics as antecedents of maternal gatekeeping and fathering behavior. Family Process, 47, 501–519. CrossRefPubMed Cannon, E. A., Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., Mangelsdorf, S. C., Brown, G. L., & Sokolowski, M. S. (2008). Parent characteristics as antecedents of maternal gatekeeping and fathering behavior. Family Process, 47, 501–519. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Carlson, M. J., & Hognas, R. S. (2011). Coparenting in fragile families: Understanding how parents work together after a nonmarital birth. In J. P. McHale & K. M. Lindahl (Eds.), Coparenting: A conceptual and clinical examination of family systems (pp. 81–104). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef Carlson, M. J., & Hognas, R. S. (2011). Coparenting in fragile families: Understanding how parents work together after a nonmarital birth. In J. P. McHale & K. M. Lindahl (Eds.), Coparenting: A conceptual and clinical examination of family systems (pp. 81–104). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
go back to reference Carlson, M. J., McLanahan, S. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2008). Coparenting and nonresident fathers’ involvement with young children after a nonmarital birth. Demography, 45, 461–488. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Carlson, M. J., McLanahan, S. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2008). Coparenting and nonresident fathers’ involvement with young children after a nonmarital birth. Demography, 45, 461–488. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Cassiman, S. A. (2008). Resisting the neo‐liberal poverty discourse: On constructing deadbeat dads and welfare queens. Sociology Compass, 2, 1690–1700. CrossRef Cassiman, S. A. (2008). Resisting the neo‐liberal poverty discourse: On constructing deadbeat dads and welfare queens. Sociology Compass, 2, 1690–1700. CrossRef
go back to reference Cherlin, A. J. (2010). The marriage go-round: The state of marriage and the family in America today. New York, NY: Vintage Books. Cherlin, A. J. (2010). The marriage go-round: The state of marriage and the family in America today. New York, NY: Vintage Books.
go back to reference Cohen, R. S., & Weissman, S. H. (1984). The parenting alliance. In R. S. Cohen, B. J. Cohler & S. H. Weissman (Eds.), Parenthood: A psychodynamic perspective (pp. 33–49). New York, NY: Guilford. Cohen, R. S., & Weissman, S. H. (1984). The parenting alliance. In R. S. Cohen, B. J. Cohler & S. H. Weissman (Eds.), Parenthood: A psychodynamic perspective (pp. 33–49). New York, NY: Guilford.
go back to reference Coley, R. L., & Chase-Lansdale, P. L. (1999). Stability and change in paternal involvement among urban African American fathers. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 416–435. CrossRef Coley, R. L., & Chase-Lansdale, P. L. (1999). Stability and change in paternal involvement among urban African American fathers. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 416–435. CrossRef
go back to reference Danziger, S. K., & Radin, N. (1990). Absent does not equal uninvolved: Predictors of fathering in teen mother families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 636–642. CrossRef Danziger, S. K., & Radin, N. (1990). Absent does not equal uninvolved: Predictors of fathering in teen mother families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 636–642. CrossRef
go back to reference DeLuccie, M. F. (1995). Mothers as gatekeepers: A model of maternal mediators of father involvement. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 156, 115–131. CrossRef DeLuccie, M. F. (1995). Mothers as gatekeepers: A model of maternal mediators of father involvement. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 156, 115–131. CrossRef
go back to reference Edin, K. (2000). What do low-income single mothers say about marriage? Social Problems, 47, 112–133. CrossRef Edin, K. (2000). What do low-income single mothers say about marriage? Social Problems, 47, 112–133. CrossRef
go back to reference Edin, K., Tach, L., & Mincy, R. (2009). Claiming fatherhood: Race and the dynamics of paternal involvement among unmarried men. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 621, 149–177. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Edin, K., Tach, L., & Mincy, R. (2009). Claiming fatherhood: Race and the dynamics of paternal involvement among unmarried men. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 621, 149–177. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Fagan, J., & Kaufman, R. (2015). Co‐parenting relationships among low‐income, unmarried parents: Perspectives of fathers in fatherhood programs. Family Court Review, 53, 304–316. CrossRef Fagan, J., & Kaufman, R. (2015). Co‐parenting relationships among low‐income, unmarried parents: Perspectives of fathers in fatherhood programs. Family Court Review, 53, 304–316. CrossRef
go back to reference Fivaz-Depeursinge, E., & Corboz-Warnery, A. (1999). The primary triangle: A developmental systems view of fathers, mothers, and infants. New York, NY: Basic Books. Fivaz-Depeursinge, E., & Corboz-Warnery, A. (1999). The primary triangle: A developmental systems view of fathers, mothers, and infants. New York, NY: Basic Books.
go back to reference Fivaz-Depeursinge, E., Favez, N., Lavanchy, S., De Noni, S., & Frascarolo, F. (2005). Four-month-olds make triangular bids to father and mother during trilogue play with still-face. Social Development, 14, 361–378. CrossRef Fivaz-Depeursinge, E., Favez, N., Lavanchy, S., De Noni, S., & Frascarolo, F. (2005). Four-month-olds make triangular bids to father and mother during trilogue play with still-face. Social Development, 14, 361–378. CrossRef
go back to reference Fivaz-Depeursinge, E., Lavanchy-Scaiola, C., & Favez, N. (2010). The young infant’s triangular communication in the family: Access to threesome intersubjectivity? Conceptual considerations and case illustrations. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 20, 125–140. CrossRef Fivaz-Depeursinge, E., Lavanchy-Scaiola, C., & Favez, N. (2010). The young infant’s triangular communication in the family: Access to threesome intersubjectivity? Conceptual considerations and case illustrations. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 20, 125–140. CrossRef
go back to reference Fivaz-Depeursinge, E., & Philipp, D. A. (2014). The baby and the couple: Understanding and treating young families. London: Routledge. CrossRef Fivaz-Depeursinge, E., & Philipp, D. A. (2014). The baby and the couple: Understanding and treating young families. London: Routledge. CrossRef
go back to reference Furstenberg, F. F. (2001). Managing to make it: Afterthoughts. Journal of Family Issues, 22, 150–162. CrossRef Furstenberg, F. F. (2001). Managing to make it: Afterthoughts. Journal of Family Issues, 22, 150–162. CrossRef
go back to reference Furstenberg, F. F., & Hughes, M. E. (1995). Social capital and successful development among at-risk youth. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 580–592. CrossRef Furstenberg, F. F., & Hughes, M. E. (1995). Social capital and successful development among at-risk youth. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 580–592. CrossRef
go back to reference Gadsden, V. L., Davis, J. E., & Johnson, C. J. (2015). African American fathers and families within cultural and historical perspective. In J. L. Roopnarine (Ed.), Fathers across cultures: The importance, roles, and diverse practices of dads (pp. 155–182). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC-CLIO. Gadsden, V. L., Davis, J. E., & Johnson, C. J. (2015). African American fathers and families within cultural and historical perspective. In J. L. Roopnarine (Ed.), Fathers across cultures: The importance, roles, and diverse practices of dads (pp. 155–182). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC-CLIO.
go back to reference Ganong, L., Coleman, M., & McCaulley, G. (2012). Gatekeeping after separation and divorce. In K. Kuehnle & L. Drozd (Eds.), Parenting plan evaluations: Applied research for the family court (pp. 369–398). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Ganong, L., Coleman, M., & McCaulley, G. (2012). Gatekeeping after separation and divorce. In K. Kuehnle & L. Drozd (Eds.), Parenting plan evaluations: Applied research for the family court (pp. 369–398). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Gaskin-Butler, V., Engert, T., Markewitz, M., Swenson, C., & McHale, J. (2012). Prenatal representations of coparenting in unmarried African American mothers. Family Process, 51, 357–372. CrossRef Gaskin-Butler, V., Engert, T., Markewitz, M., Swenson, C., & McHale, J. (2012). Prenatal representations of coparenting in unmarried African American mothers. Family Process, 51, 357–372. CrossRef
go back to reference Kennedy, B. R., Mathis, C. C., & Woods, A. K. (2007). African Americans and their distrust of the health care system: Healthcare for diverse populations. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 14, 56–60. PubMed Kennedy, B. R., Mathis, C. C., & Woods, A. K. (2007). African Americans and their distrust of the health care system: Healthcare for diverse populations. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 14, 56–60. PubMed
go back to reference Lavadera, A. L., Laghi, F., & Togliatti, M. M. (2011). Assessing family coordination in divorced families. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 39, 277–291. CrossRef Lavadera, A. L., Laghi, F., & Togliatti, M. M. (2011). Assessing family coordination in divorced families. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 39, 277–291. CrossRef
go back to reference Lieberson, R., Rotman, T., Hartman, O., Giampa, S., Kuersten-Hogan, R., & McHale, J.P. (2004). An analysis of early coparenting dynamics at 3 months post-partum. Poster presented at the 9th World Congress of the World Association for Infant Mental Health, Melbourne. Lieberson, R., Rotman, T., Hartman, O., Giampa, S., Kuersten-Hogan, R., & McHale, J.P. (2004). An analysis of early coparenting dynamics at 3 months post-partum. Poster presented at the 9th World Congress of the World Association for Infant Mental Health, Melbourne.
go back to reference Lundberg, S., & Pollak, R. A. (2014). The uneven retreat from marriage in the U.S., 1950–2010. In L. P. Boustan, C. Frydman & R. A. Margo (Eds.), Human capital and history: The American record (pp. 241–272). Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. Lundberg, S., & Pollak, R. A. (2014). The uneven retreat from marriage in the U.S., 1950–2010. In L. P. Boustan, C. Frydman & R. A. Margo (Eds.), Human capital and history: The American record (pp. 241–272). Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
go back to reference McHale, J. (2011). Assessing coparenting. In J. McHale & K. Lindahl (Eds.), Coparenting: A conceptual and clinical examination of family systems (pp. 149–170). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press. CrossRef McHale, J. (2011). Assessing coparenting. In J. McHale & K. Lindahl (Eds.), Coparenting: A conceptual and clinical examination of family systems (pp. 149–170). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press. CrossRef
go back to reference McHale, J., & Coates, E. E. (2014). Observed coparenting and triadic dynamics in African American fragile families at 3 months post-partum. Infant Mental Health Journal, 35, 435–451. CrossRefPubMed McHale, J., & Coates, E. E. (2014). Observed coparenting and triadic dynamics in African American fragile families at 3 months post-partum. Infant Mental Health Journal, 35, 435–451. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McHale, J. P., & Cowan, P. A. (1996). Understanding how family-level dynamics affect children’s development: Studies of two-parent families. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. McHale, J. P., & Cowan, P. A. (1996). Understanding how family-level dynamics affect children’s development: Studies of two-parent families. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
go back to reference McHale, J., & Dickstein, S. (2018). The interpersonal context of early childhood development: A systemic approach to infant-family assessment. In A. Carter & R. DelCarmen Wiggins (Eds.), Oxford handbook of infant, toddler, and preschool mental health assessment, 2nd Edn. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. McHale, J., & Dickstein, S. (2018). The interpersonal context of early childhood development: A systemic approach to infant-family assessment. In A. Carter & R. DelCarmen Wiggins (Eds.), Oxford handbook of infant, toddler, and preschool mental health assessment, 2nd Edn. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference McHale, J., & Fivaz-Depeursinge, E. (1999). Understanding triadic and family group process during infancy and early childhood. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2, 107–127. CrossRefPubMed McHale, J., & Fivaz-Depeursinge, E. (1999). Understanding triadic and family group process during infancy and early childhood. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2, 107–127. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McHale, J., Fivaz-Depeursinge, E., Dickstein, S., Robertson, J., & Daley, M. (2008). New evidence for the social embeddedness of infants’ early triangular capacities. Family Process, 47, 445–463. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef McHale, J., Fivaz-Depeursinge, E., Dickstein, S., Robertson, J., & Daley, M. (2008). New evidence for the social embeddedness of infants’ early triangular capacities. Family Process, 47, 445–463. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference McHale, J., Gaskin-Butler, V., McKay, K., & Gallardo, G. (2013). Figuring it out for the child: Fostering coparenting in unmarried expectant African American parents. ZERO TO THREE Journal, 33, 17–22. McHale, J., Gaskin-Butler, V., McKay, K., & Gallardo, G. (2013). Figuring it out for the child: Fostering coparenting in unmarried expectant African American parents. ZERO TO THREE Journal, 33, 17–22.
go back to reference McHale, J., & Irace, K. (2011). Coparenting in diverse family systems. In J. McHale & K. Lindahl (Eds.), Coparenting: A conceptual and clinical examination of family systems (pp. 15–38). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press. CrossRef McHale, J., & Irace, K. (2011). Coparenting in diverse family systems. In J. McHale & K. Lindahl (Eds.), Coparenting: A conceptual and clinical examination of family systems (pp. 15–38). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press. CrossRef
go back to reference McHale, J., & Phares, V. (2015). From dyads to family systems: A bold new direction for infantmental health practice. ZERO TO THREE Journal, 35, 1–8. McHale, J., & Phares, V. (2015). From dyads to family systems: A bold new direction for infantmental health practice. ZERO TO THREE Journal, 35, 1–8.
go back to reference McLanahan, S. S., & Carlson, M. J. (2002). Welfare reform, fertility, and father involvement. The Future of Children, 12, 147–165. McLanahan, S. S., & Carlson, M. J. (2002). Welfare reform, fertility, and father involvement. The Future of Children, 12, 147–165.
go back to reference Minuchin, P., Colapinto, J., & Minuchin, S. (2007). Working with families of the poor (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Minuchin, P., Colapinto, J., & Minuchin, S. (2007). Working with families of the poor (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Mixon, E. (1999). Deadbeat dads: Undeserving of the Right to inherit from their illegitimate children and undeserving of equal protection. Georgia Law Review, 34, 1773. Mixon, E. (1999). Deadbeat dads: Undeserving of the Right to inherit from their illegitimate children and undeserving of equal protection. Georgia Law Review, 34, 1773.
go back to reference Ooms, T. (1996). Where is the family in comprehensive community initiatives for children and families? Paper presented at the Aspen Roundtable on Comprehensive Community Initiatives for Children and Families, Aspen, CO. Ooms, T. (1996). Where is the family in comprehensive community initiatives for children and families? Paper presented at the Aspen Roundtable on Comprehensive Community Initiatives for Children and Families, Aspen, CO.
go back to reference Ooms, T., & Wilson, P. (2004). The challenges of offering relationship and marriage education to low-income populations. Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 53, 440–447. CrossRef Ooms, T., & Wilson, P. (2004). The challenges of offering relationship and marriage education to low-income populations. Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 53, 440–447. CrossRef
go back to reference Papoušek, H., & Papoušek, M. (1987). Intuitive parenting: A dialectic counterpart to the infant’s integrative competence. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (2nd ed.). (pp. 669–720). Oxford: John Wiley & Sons. Papoušek, H., & Papoušek, M. (1987). Intuitive parenting: A dialectic counterpart to the infant’s integrative competence. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (2nd ed.). (pp. 669–720). Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
go back to reference Papoušek, H., & Papoušek, M. (1992). Beyond emotional bonding: The role of preverbal communication in mental growth and health. Infant Mental Health Journal, 13, 43–53. CrossRef Papoušek, H., & Papoušek, M. (1992). Beyond emotional bonding: The role of preverbal communication in mental growth and health. Infant Mental Health Journal, 13, 43–53. CrossRef
go back to reference Puhlman, D. J., & Pasley, K. (2013). Rethinking maternal gatekeeping. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 5, 176–193. CrossRef Puhlman, D. J., & Pasley, K. (2013). Rethinking maternal gatekeeping. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 5, 176–193. CrossRef
go back to reference Raley, R. K., Sweeney, M. M., & Wondra, D. (2015). The growing racial and ethnic divide in U.S. Marriage Patterns. The Future of Children / Center for the Future of Children, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 25, 89–109. PubMedCentralCrossRef Raley, R. K., Sweeney, M. M., & Wondra, D. (2015). The growing racial and ethnic divide in U.S. Marriage Patterns. The Future of Children / Center for the Future of Children, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 25, 89–109. PubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Reichman, N. E., Teitler, J. O., Garfinkel, I., & McLanahan, S. S. (2001). Fragile families: Sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23, 303–326. CrossRef Reichman, N. E., Teitler, J. O., Garfinkel, I., & McLanahan, S. S. (2001). Fragile families: Sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23, 303–326. CrossRef
go back to reference Roy, K. M., Buckmiller, N., & McDowell, A. (2008). Together but not ‘Together’: Trajectories of relationship suspension for low-income unmarried parents. Family Relations, 57, 198–210. CrossRef Roy, K. M., Buckmiller, N., & McDowell, A. (2008). Together but not ‘Together’: Trajectories of relationship suspension for low-income unmarried parents. Family Relations, 57, 198–210. CrossRef
go back to reference Roy, K., & Burton, L. (2007). Mothering through recruitment: Kinscription of nonresidential fathers and father figures in low-income families. Family Relations, 56, 24–39. CrossRef Roy, K., & Burton, L. (2007). Mothering through recruitment: Kinscription of nonresidential fathers and father figures in low-income families. Family Relations, 56, 24–39. CrossRef
go back to reference Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., Altenburger, L. E., Lee, M. A., Bower, D. J., & Kamp Dush, C. M. (2015). Who are the gatekeepers? Predictors of maternal gatekeeping. Parenting, Science and Practice, 15, 166–186. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., Altenburger, L. E., Lee, M. A., Bower, D. J., & Kamp Dush, C. M. (2015). Who are the gatekeepers? Predictors of maternal gatekeeping. Parenting, Science and Practice, 15, 166–186. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., Brown, G. L., Cannon, E. A., Mangelsdorf, S. C., & Sokolowski, M. S. (2008). Maternal gatekeeping, coparenting quality, and fathering behavior in families with infants. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 389–398. CrossRefPubMed Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., Brown, G. L., Cannon, E. A., Mangelsdorf, S. C., & Sokolowski, M. S. (2008). Maternal gatekeeping, coparenting quality, and fathering behavior in families with infants. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 389–398. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., Settle, T., Lee, J., & Kamp Dush, C. M. (2016). Supportive coparenting relationships as a haven of psychological safety at the transition to parenthood. Research in Human Development, 13, 32–48. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., Settle, T., Lee, J., & Kamp Dush, C. M. (2016). Supportive coparenting relationships as a haven of psychological safety at the transition to parenthood. Research in Human Development, 13, 32–48. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Seery, B. L., & Crowley, M. W. (2000). Women’s emotion work in the family: Relationships management and the process of building father-child relationships. Journal of Family Issues, 21, 100–127. CrossRef Seery, B. L., & Crowley, M. W. (2000). Women’s emotion work in the family: Relationships management and the process of building father-child relationships. Journal of Family Issues, 21, 100–127. CrossRef
go back to reference Seltzer, J. A. (1991). Relationships between fathers and children who live apart: The father’s role after separation. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 79–101. CrossRef Seltzer, J. A. (1991). Relationships between fathers and children who live apart: The father’s role after separation. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 79–101. CrossRef
go back to reference Shrout, P. E., & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 420–428. CrossRefPubMed Shrout, P. E., & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 420–428. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Stern, D. N. (1985). The interpersonal world of the infant: A view from psychoanalysis and developmental psychology. New York, NY: Basic Books. Stern, D. N. (1985). The interpersonal world of the infant: A view from psychoanalysis and developmental psychology. New York, NY: Basic Books.
go back to reference Stier, H., & Tienda, M. (1993). Are men marginal to the family? Insights from Chicago’s inner city. In J. C. Hood & J. C. Hood (Eds.), Men, work, and family (pp. 23–44). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc. Stier, H., & Tienda, M. (1993). Are men marginal to the family? Insights from Chicago’s inner city. In J. C. Hood & J. C. Hood (Eds.), Men, work, and family (pp. 23–44). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.
go back to reference Strathearn, L., Li, J., Fonagy, P., & Montague, P. R. (2008). What’s in a smile? Maternal brain responses to infant facial cues. Pediatrics, 122, 40–51. PubMedCrossRef Strathearn, L., Li, J., Fonagy, P., & Montague, P. R. (2008). What’s in a smile? Maternal brain responses to infant facial cues. Pediatrics, 122, 40–51. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tanner, A., Kim, S. H., Friedman, D. B., Foster, C., & Bergeron, C. D. (2015). Barriers to medical research participation as perceived by clinical trial investigators: Communicating with rural and African American communities. Journal of Health Communication, 20, 88–96. CrossRefPubMed Tanner, A., Kim, S. H., Friedman, D. B., Foster, C., & Bergeron, C. D. (2015). Barriers to medical research participation as perceived by clinical trial investigators: Communicating with rural and African American communities. Journal of Health Communication, 20, 88–96. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Trinder, L. (2008). Maternal gate closing and gate opening in postdivorce families. Journal of Family Issues, 29, 1298–1324. CrossRef Trinder, L. (2008). Maternal gate closing and gate opening in postdivorce families. Journal of Family Issues, 29, 1298–1324. CrossRef
go back to reference Walker, A. J., & McGraw, L. A. (2000). Who is responsible for responsible fathering. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 563–569. CrossRef Walker, A. J., & McGraw, L. A. (2000). Who is responsible for responsible fathering. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 563–569. CrossRef
go back to reference Wilson, W. J., & Neckerman, K. M. (1987). Poverty and family structure: The widening gap between evidence and public policy issues. In S. H. Danziger, D. H. Weinberg, S. H. Danziger & D. H. Weinberg (Eds.), Fighting poverty: What works and what doesn’t (pp. 232–259). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wilson, W. J., & Neckerman, K. M. (1987). Poverty and family structure: The widening gap between evidence and public policy issues. In S. H. Danziger, D. H. Weinberg, S. H. Danziger & D. H. Weinberg (Eds.), Fighting poverty: What works and what doesn’t (pp. 232–259). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Metagegevens
Titel
Triangular Interactions of Unmarried African American Mothers and Fathers with their 3-Month-Old Infants
Auteurs
Erica E. Coates
James P. McHale
Publicatiedatum
28-03-2018
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 10/2018
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1082-8