Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Few studies have examined the interactive effect of intra- and extra-individual vulnerability factors on the trajectory of social anxiety in children. In this study, we examined the joint influence of familial vulnerability (i.e., parental social anxiety) and child biological stress vulnerability (i.e., cortisol reactivity) on trajectories of social anxiety. Children (N = 112 (57 males), Mage = 8.14 years, S.D. = 2.25) were followed over three visits spanning approximately three years. Parental social anxiety was assessed using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory, children’s behavior and salivary cortisol reactivity were measured in response to a speech task, and children’s social anxiety was assessed at all three visits using the Screen for Child Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED; Parent-report). A growth curve analysis was used to examine trajectories of child social anxiety as predicted by children’s cortisol reactivity and parental social anxiety, adjusting for covariates. We found a significant interaction between parental social anxiety and child cortisol reactivity in predicting child social anxiety across time. Having a socially anxious parent coupled with heightened cortisol reactivity predicted the highest levels of child social anxiety, with scores that remained above clinically significant levels for social anxiety across all visits. Children with familial risk for social anxiety and who also exhibit high stress-reactivity appear to be at risk for persistent, clinically significant social anxiety. This highlights the importance of considering the interaction between both biological and contextual factors when considering the development, maintenance, and treatment of social anxiety in children across time.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. CrossRef
Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (2007). Clinical presentation of social anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. In D. C. Beidel & S. M. Turner (Eds.), Shy children, phobic adults: Nature and treatment of social anxiety disorders (2nd ed., pp. 47–80). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Birmaher, B., Khetarpal, S., Brent, D., Cully, M., Balach, L., Kaufman, J., et al. (1997). The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): Scale construction and psycho- metric characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 545–553. CrossRefPubMed
Buckner, J. D., & Turner, R. J. (2009). Social anxiety disorder as a risk factor for alcohol use disorders: a prospective examination of parental and peer influences. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 100, 128–137.
Buckner, J. D., Timpano, K. R., Zvolensky, M. J., Sachs‐Ericsson, N., & Schmidt, N. B. (2008). Implications of comorbid alcohol dependence among individuals with social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 1028–1037.
Chronis-Tuscano, A., Degnan, K. A., Pine, D. S., Perez-Edgar, K., Henderson, H. A., Diaz, Y., et al. (2009). Stable early maternal report of behavioral inhibition predicts lifetime social anxiety disorder in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 928–935. CrossRef
Cicchetti, D. (1989). Developmental psychopathology: Past, present, and future. In D. Cicchetti (Ed.), The Emergence of a Discipline: The Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology (Vol. 1, pp. 1–12). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cicchetti, D. (1993). Fractures in the crystal: Developmental psychopathology and the emergence of the self. Developmental Review, 11, 271–287. CrossRef
Clauss, J. A., & Blackford, J. U. (2012). Behavioral inhibition and risk for developing social anxiety disorder: A meta-analytic study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 1066–1075. CrossRef
Cunningham, C. E., Boyle, M. H., Hong, S., Pettingill, P., & Bohaychuck, D. (2009). The brief child and family phone interview (BCFPI): 1. Rationale, development, and description of a computerized children’s mental health intake and outcome assessment tool. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 416–523. CrossRefPubMed
Fox, N. A., Rubin, K. H., Calkins, S. D., Marshall, T. R., Coplan, R. J., Porges, S. W., & Long, J. (1995). Frontal activation asymmetry and social competence at four years of age: Left frontal hyper and hypo activation as correlates of social behavior in preschool children. Child Development, 66, 1770–1786. CrossRefPubMed
Goldsmith, H.H., Reilly, J., Lemery, K.S., Longley, L., Prescott, A. (1993). The Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery. (Technical Manual) University of Wisconsin: Madison.
Gunnar, M. R., & Talge, N. M. (2008). Neuroendocrine measures in developmental research. In L. A. Schmidt & S. J. Segalowitz (Eds.), Developmental psychophysiology: Theory, systems, & applications (pp. 343–364). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hale, W. W., Raaijmakers, Q., Muris, P., & Meeus, W. I. M. (2005). Psychometric properties of the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED) in the general adolescent population. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 283–290. CrossRef
Hale, W. W., Raaijmakers, Q., Muris, P., & Meeus, W. (2008). Developmental trajectories of adolescent anxiety disorder symptoms: A 5-year prospective community study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 556–564. CrossRef
Hale, W. W., Raaijmakers, Q. A., García-López, L. J., Espinosa-Fernández, L., Muela, J. A., & del Mar Díaz-Castela, M. (2013). Psychometric properties of the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders for socially anxious and healthy Spanish adolescents. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 16, 1–7. CrossRef
Hallgren, K. A. (2012). Computing inter-rater reliability for observational data: An overview and tutorial. Tutorial in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 8, 23–34. CrossRef
Herbert, J. D., Bellack, A. S., & Hope, D. A. (1991). Concurrent validity of social phobia and anxiety inventory. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 13, 357–368. CrossRef
Lewis, M. (1990). Models of developmental psychopathology. In M. Lewis & S. M. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 15–27). New York: Plenum Press. CrossRef
Mancini, C., Van Ameringen, M., Szatmari, P., Fugere, C., & Boyle, M. (1996). A high-risk pilot study of the children of adults with social phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1511–1517.
Marmorstein, N. R., White, H., Chung, T., Hipwell, A., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Loeber, R. (2010). Associations between first use of substances and change in internalizing symptoms among girls: Differences by symptom trajectory and substance use type. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39, 545–558. CrossRef
Merikangas, K. R., Lieb, R., Wittchen, H. U., & Avenevoli, S. (2003). Family and high-risk studies of social anxiety disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 108, 28–37. CrossRef
Murray, L., De Rosnay, M., Pearson, J., Bergeron, C., Schofield, E., Royal‐Lawson, M., & Cooper, P. J. (2008). Intergenerational transmission of social anxiety: the role of social referencing processes in infancy. Child Development, 79, 1049–1064.
Newman, D. A. (2003). Longitudinal modeling with randomly and systematically missing data: A simulation of ad hoc, maximum likelihood, and multiple imputation techniques. Organizational Research Methods, 6, 328–362. CrossRef
Osman, A., Barrios, F. X., Haupt, D., King, K., Osman, J. R., & Slavens, S. (1996). The social phobia and anxiety inventory: Further validation in two nonclinical samples. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 18, 35–47. CrossRef
Schiefelbein, V. L., & Susman, E. J. (2006). Cortisol levels and longitudinal cortisol change as predictors of anxiety in adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 26, 397–413. CrossRef
Schmidt, L. A., & Miskovic, V. (2013). A new perspective on temperamental shyness: Differential susceptibility to endoevironmental influences. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7, 141–157. CrossRef
Schulkin, J., Morgan, M. A., & Rosen, J. B. (2005). A neuroendocrine mechanism for sustaining fear. TRENDS Neuroscience, 28, 629–635. CrossRef
Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., Dancu, C. V., & Stanley, M. A. (1989a). An empirically derived inventory to measure social fears and anxiety: The social phobia and anxiety inventory. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychopathology, 1, 35–40. CrossRef
Turner, S. M., Stanley, M. A., Beidel, D. C., & Bond, L. (1989b). The social phobia and anxiety inventory: Construct validity. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 11, 221–234. CrossRef
Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., & Dancu, C. V. (1996). Social phobia and anxiety inventory manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems Inc.
Walker, R. F. (1984). Salivary cortisol determinations in the assessment of adrenal activity. In D. B. Ferguson (Ed.), Steroid hormones in saliva (pp. 33–50). Basel: Karger.
Wittchen, H. U., & Fehm, L. (2003). Epidemiology and natural course of social fears and social phobia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 417, 4–18. CrossRef
- Trajectories of Social Anxiety in Children: Influence of Child Cortisol Reactivity and Parental Social Anxiety
Kristie L. Poole
Ryan J. Van Lieshout
Angela E. McHolm
Charles E. Cunningham
Louis A. Schmidt
- Springer US