Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
This cohort-sequential study examined developmental trajectories of social anxiety in a nonclinical sample (N = 331, 161 girls) aged 9 to 17 years at initial and 12 to 21 years at final assessment. We tested whether variables assessing cognition, social competence, and temperament discriminated between the trajectories. Variables were collected from different sources: participants, independent observers, parents, and teachers. Using Latent Class Growth Modeling (LCGM) we identified three distinct social anxiety trajectory groups: i) high and changing; ii) moderate and decreasing; and iii) low and decreasing. Multinomial regression analyses showed that the cognition variables, negative interpretations of ambiguous social situations and self-focused attention, differentiated between all three trajectories. A lack of social skills and having social problems at school were specifically related to the chance of following the high trajectory versus the moderate trajectory. Neuroticism differentiated between the low and moderate trajectories. Findings indicate that adolescents at risk of belonging to a high social anxiety trajectory can be discriminated from peers belonging to a less anxious trajectory using both cognition and social competence variables.
Andruff, H., Carraro, N., Thompson, A., & Gaudreau, P. (2009). Latent class growth modelling: a tutorial. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 5, 11–24.
Bokhorst, K. (1990). Teruggetrokken gedrag bij kinderen op de basisschool [Withdrawn behavior in primary school children]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Broeren, S., Muris, P., & Diamantopoulou, S. (2011). The course of childhood anxiety disorder symptoms: Developmental trajectories and child-related variables in normal children. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Burgess, K., Rubin, K. H., Cheah, C., & Nelson, L. (2001). Behavioral inhibition, social withdrawal, and parenting. In W. R. Crozier & L. E. Alden (Eds.), International handbook of social anxiety: Concepts, research and interventions (pp. 137–158). New York: John Wiley.
Chronis-Tuscano, A., Degnan, K. A., Pine, D. S., Perez-Edgar, K., Henderson, H. A., Diaz, et al. (2009). Stable early maternal report of behavioral inhibition predicts lifetime social anxiety in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 928–935. CrossRef
Clark, D. M., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In R. G. Heimberg, M. R. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment (pp. 69–93). New York: Guilford Press.
Conners, C. K. (2004). Conners’ rating scales-revised: Technical manual. North Tonawanda: MHS.
De Clerq, B., De Fruyt, F., & van Leeuwen, K. (2004). A “Little Five” lexically based perspective on personality disorder symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18, 479–499. CrossRef
Duchesne, S., Vitaro, F., Larose, S., & Tremblay, R. E. (2008). Trajectories of anxiety during elementary-school years and the prediction of high school noncompletion. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 1134–1146. CrossRef
Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). London: Sage.
Hayward, C., Wilson, K. A., Lagle, K., Kraemer, H. C., Killen, J. D., & Taylor, C. B. (2007). The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety in adolescents. Depression and Anxiety, 0, 1–7.
Hodson, K. J., McManus, F. V., Clark, D. M., & Doll, H. (2008). Can Clark and Wells’ (1995) cognitive model of social phobia be applied to young people? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36, 449–461. CrossRef
Jones, B., & Nagin, D. S. (2007). Advances in Group-based trajectory modeling and an SAS procedure for estimating them. Sociological Methods and Research, 35, 542–571. CrossRef
Jones, B., Nagin, D. S., & Roeder, K. (2001). A SAS procedure based on mixture models for estimating developmental trajectories. Sociological Methods and Research, 29, 374–393. CrossRef
La Greca, A. M. (1999). Manual for the Social Anxiety Scales for children and adolescents. Miami: Author.
Marmorstein, N. R., White, H., Chung, T., Hipwell, A., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Loeber, R. (2010). Associations between first use of substances and change in internalizing symptoms among girls: differences by symptom trajectory and substance use type. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39, 545–558. PubMed
Mauss, I. B., Wilhelm, F. H., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Is there less to social anxiety than meets the eye? Cognition and Emotion, 18, 631–662. CrossRef
Mervielde, I., & De Fruyt, F. (2002). Assessing children’s traits with the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children. In B. de Raad & M. Perugini (Eds.), Big five assessment (pp. 127–146). Seattle: Hogrefe & Huber.
Miers, A. C., Blöte, A. W., Sumter, S. R., Kallen, V. L., & Westenberg, P. M. (2011a). Subjective and objective arousal correspondence and the role of self-monitoring processes in high and low socially anxious youth. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 2, 531–550. CrossRef
Muris, P. (2010). Anxiety-related reasoning biases in children and adolescents. In J. A. Hadwin & A. P. Field (Eds.), Information processing biases and anxiety: a developmental perspective (pp. 21–45). Chichester: Wiley.
Nagin, D. S. (1999). Analyzing developmental trajectories: a semiparametric group-based approach. Psychological Methods, 4, 139–157. CrossRef
Nagin, D. S. (2005). Group-based modeling of development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Norton, P. J., & Hope, D. A. (2001). Kernels of truth or distorted perceptions: self and observer ratings of social anxiety and performance. Behavior Therapy, 32, 765–786. CrossRef
Van Brakel, A. M. L., Muris, P., & Bögels, S. M. (2004). Relations between parent- and teacher-reported behavioral inhibition and behavioral observations of this temperamental trait. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 579–589. PubMed
Vermunt, J. K., Tran, B., & Magidson, J. (2008). Latent class models in longitudinal research. In S. Menard (Ed.), Handbook of longitudinal research: Design, measurement, and analysis (pp. 373–385). Burlington: Elsevier.
Watson, D., Gamez, W., & Simms, L. J. (2005). Basic dimensions of temperament and their relation to anxiety and depression: a symptom-based perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 39, 46–66. CrossRef
Westenberg, P. M., Gullone, E., Bokhorst, C. L., Heyne, D. A., & King, N. J. (2007). Social evaluation fear in childhood and adolescence: normative developmental course and continuity of individual differences. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 25, 471–483. CrossRef
Westenberg, P. M., Bokhorst, C. L., Miers, A. C., Sumter, S. R., Kallen, V. L., van Pelt, J., & Blöte, A. W. (2009). A prepared speech in front of a pre-recorded audience: subjective, physiological and neuroendocrine responses to the Leiden Public Speaking Task. Biological Psychology, 82, 116–124. PubMedCrossRef
- Trajectories of Social Anxiety during Adolescence and Relations with Cognition, Social Competence, and Temperament
A. C. Miers
A. W. Blöte
M. de Rooij
C. L. Bokhorst
P. M. Westenberg
- Springer US