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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 3/2014

01-03-2014 | Original Paper

Trajectories of Autism Severity in Early Childhood

Auteurs: Courtney E. Venker, Corey E. Ray-Subramanian, Daniel M. Bolt, Susan Ellis Weismer

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 3/2014

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Abstract

Relatively little is known about trajectories of autism severity using calibrated severity scores (CSS) from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, but characterizing these trajectories has important theoretical and clinical implications. This study examined CSS trajectories during early childhood. Participants were 129 children with autism spectrum disorder evaluated annually from ages 2½ to 5½. The four severity trajectory classes that emerged—Persistent High (n = 47), Persistent Moderate (n = 54), Worsening (n = 10), and Improving (n = 18)—were strikingly similar to those identified by Gotham et al. (Pediatrics 130(5):e1278–e1284, 2012). Children in the Persistent High trajectory class had the most severe functional skill deficits in baseline nonverbal cognition and daily living skills and in receptive and expressive language growth.
Voetnoten
1
AIC is calculated as: −2 log likelihood +2p, where p is the number of parameters in the model. SSBIC is calculated as: −2 log likelihood +p ln([N + 2]/24), where p is the number of parameters in the model and N is the sample size. SSBIC takes sample size into account and is more appropriate than unadjusted BIC for limited sample sizes.
 
2
Αlpha level for the pairwise contrasts was controlled using the Bonferroni-Holm method as follows. First, α was set at a standard level of α = 0.05. The contrast with the lowest p value was tested against α/6, or α = 0.008, since there was a total of six planned contrasts among classes. If the first contrast was significant, the contrast with the next lowest p value was tested at α/5, or α = 0.01, since there were five remaining contrasts. This process continued until a contrast was non-significant.
 
3
The effect size variant of Cohen’s d used for the pairwise comparisons was calculated as the difference in the intercepts (or slopes) between classes, divided by the residual standard deviation of the random intercept (or slope), as estimated using the HLM software. Following Cohen’s classification, effect sizes of d > 0.8 are considered indicative of large effects.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Trajectories of Autism Severity in Early Childhood
Auteurs
Courtney E. Venker
Corey E. Ray-Subramanian
Daniel M. Bolt
Susan Ellis Weismer
Publicatiedatum
01-03-2014
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 3/2014
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1903-y

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