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30-11-2019 | Empirical Research | Uitgave 7/2020

Journal of Youth and Adolescence 7/2020

Time-varying Effects of GABRG1 and Maladaptive Peer Behavior on Externalizing Behavior from Childhood to Adulthood: Testing Gene × Environment × Development Effects

Tijdschrift:
Journal of Youth and Adolescence > Uitgave 7/2020
Auteurs:
Elisa M. Trucco, Songshan Yang, James J. Yang, Robert A. Zucker, Runze Li, Anne Buu
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Abstract

Engagement in externalizing behavior is problematic. Deviant peer affiliation increases risk for externalizing behavior. Yet, peer effects vary across individuals and may differ across genes. This study determines gene × environment × development interactions as they apply to externalizing behavior from childhood to adulthood. A sample (n = 687; 68% male, 90% White) of youth from the Michigan Longitudinal Study was assessed from ages 10 to 25. Interactions between γ-amino butyric acid type A receptor γ1 subunit (GABRG1; rs7683876, rs13120165) and maladaptive peer behavior on externalizing behavior were examined using time-varying effect modeling. The findings indicate a sequential risk gradient in the influence of maladaptive peer behavior on externalizing behavior depending on the number of G alleles during childhood through adulthood. Individuals with the GG genotype are most vulnerable to maladaptive peer influences, which results in greater externalizing behavior during late childhood through early adulthood.

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