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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 7/2013

01-07-2013 | Original Paper

Time-Based and Event-Based Prospective Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Roles of Executive Function and Theory of Mind, and Time-Estimation

Auteurs: David Williams, Jill Boucher, Sophie Lind, Christopher Jarrold

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 7/2013

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Abstract

Prospective memory (remembering to carry out an action in the future) has been studied relatively little in ASD. We explored time-based (carry out an action at a pre-specified time) and event-based (carry out an action upon the occurrence of a pre-specified event) prospective memory, as well as possible cognitive correlates, among 21 intellectually high-functioning children with ASD, and 21 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison children. We found impaired time-based, but undiminished event-based, prospective memory among children with ASD. In the ASD group, time-based prospective memory performance was associated significantly with diminished theory of mind, but not with diminished cognitive flexibility. There was no evidence that time-estimation ability contributed to time-based prospective memory impairment in ASD.
Voetnoten
1
In our view, groups should only be considered matched on a variable if group differences in that variable are associated with small/negligible effect sizes (i.e., d ≤ 0.50) (see McCartney et al. 2006; see also Mervis and Klein-Tasman 2004).
 
2
Of course, in everyday life it may be that individuals with ASD display PM failures precisely because they need to devote more attention than is typical to other ongoing (day-to-day) activities in order to complete them. Thus, there may be a general difficulty in ASD with carrying out more than one task (cf. Mackinlay et al. 2006). The aim of this study, however, is to establish whether there is a specific problem with PM, and what the cognitive correlates of any specific impairment are.
 
3
Adjusted group means for number of time-based PM failures after controlling for ongoing task performance were, ASD: M = 1.50, SE = 0.24; Comparison: M = 0.89, SE = 0.24. Adjusted group means for number of event-based PM failures after controlling for ongoing task performance were, ASD: M = 0.20, SE = 0.17; Comparison: M = 0.51, SE = 0.17.
 
4
It should be made clear that the focus of Jones et al.’s (2011) paper was not on PM specifically, but rather on everyday memory problems in ASD. Of course, in everyday life, a failure of retrospective memory could lead directly to poor PM with all the negative consequences associated with diminished PM apparent as a result. Thus, there is no critique of Jones et al.’s approach implied in our discussion. Rather, we wish merely to understand whether PM is impaired in ASD, independent of diminished retrospective memory. Given this specific aim, we argue that our approach/analysis is more informative.
 
5
The accuracy of the following calculations has been kindly confirmed by C. Jones (personal communication, January, 2012). Taking the categorical data reported in Table 1 of Jones et al.’s paper, we were able to calculate the group differences in rates of spontaneous PM success on each of the three key subtests. For the sake of parsimony, we report in full only the results from the Appointment subtest. According to our calculations, 78.0 % (n = 39) of ASD participants and 88.6 % (n = 39) of comparison participants spontaneously asked the experimenter the time when the alarm sounded. Twenty-two percent (n = 11) of participants with ASD and 11.4 % (n = 5) comparison participants forgot to ask the experimenter despite recalling the instructions when asked. Therefore, once those individuals who failed this PM task because they had forgotten the instructions were excluded, the differences between the groups on this subtest was non-significant and associated with only a negligible/small effect size, χ2 = 1.88, p = .17, φ = .14. Using the same procedure, our calculations showed that group differences on the Message and the Belonging subtests were also non-significant and associated with negligible effect sizes (all ps > .38, all φs < .08).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Time-Based and Event-Based Prospective Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Roles of Executive Function and Theory of Mind, and Time-Estimation
Auteurs
David Williams
Jill Boucher
Sophie Lind
Christopher Jarrold
Publicatiedatum
01-07-2013
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 7/2013
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1703-9