Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 9/2008

01-10-2008 | Empirical Research

The Utility of Forms and Functions of Aggression in Emerging Adulthood: Association with Personality Disorder Symptomatology

Auteurs: Jamie M. Ostrov, Rebecca J. Houston

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 9/2008

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

A sample of 679 (341 women) emerging adults (M = 18.90 years; SD = 1.11; range = 18.00–22.92) participated in a study on the utility of forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggression. We examined the link between these four subtypes of aggression and personality pathology (i.e., psychopathic features, borderline personality disorder features, and antisocial personality disorder features). The study supports the psychometric properties (i.e., test–retest reliability, internal consistency, discriminant validity) of a recently introduced measure of forms and functions of aggression during emerging adulthood. Aggression subtypes were uniquely associated with indices of personality pathology. For example, proactive (i.e., planned, instrumental or goal-oriented) and reactive (i.e., impulsive, hostile or retaliatory) functions of relational aggression were uniquely associated with borderline personality disorder features even after controlling for functions of physical aggression and gender. The results highlight the differential associations between forms and functions of aggression and indices of personality pathology in typically developing emerging adults.
Voetnoten
1
In selecting participants for the larger ERP study and the test–retest assessment, in order to increase variability in the sample, scheduling preference was given to participants who were above the mean on physical aggression, relational aggression or both. There were no statistically significant differences between the sub-sample that completed the second time point and those that did not for age [t(697) = 1.47, p = .143], academic year [t(699) = 1.14, p = .253] or GPA [t(518) = −1.50, p = .134]. There was also no difference for reactive relational aggression between those that participated at time 2 (M = 15.21; SD = 5.53) and those that did not (M = 14.64; SD = 5.33), t(698) = .90, p = .37. There were differences for proactive relational aggression, t(698) = 3.12, p = .002, such that those that completed time 2 (M = 10.35; SD = 4.57) were higher than those that did not (M = 8.94; SD = 3.68). The test–retest sub-sample (M = 5.50; SD = 2.99) was higher in proactive physical aggression than those that did not return to the laboratory (M = 4.90; SD = 2.50), t(698) = 1.98, p = .048. Finally, the test–retest sub-sample (M = 6.85; SD = 3.69) was higher in reactive physical aggression than those that did not return to the laboratory (M = 5.64; SD = 3.38), t(700) = 2.98, p = .003.
 
2
Due to missing data on the fearless dominance scale of the PPI for one participant the lower bound for the range was 26 and not 28.
 
3
Multicollinearity was not detected as the conditioning index was not greater than 30 for any of the dimensions and the variance proportions were not greater than .50 for more than two different variables (Tabachnick and Fidell 2007).
 
Literatuur
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
go back to reference Arnett, J. J. (1994). Are college students adults? Their conceptions of the transition to adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 1, 154–168. CrossRef Arnett, J. J. (1994). Are college students adults? Their conceptions of the transition to adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 1, 154–168. CrossRef
go back to reference Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480. PubMedCrossRef Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Arnett, J. J., & Taber, S. (1994). Adolescence terminable and interminable: When does adolescence end? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 23, 517–537. CrossRef Arnett, J. J., & Taber, S. (1994). Adolescence terminable and interminable: When does adolescence end? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 23, 517–537. CrossRef
go back to reference Bagby, R. M., & Farvolden, P. (2004). The personality diagnostic questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4). In M. J. Hilsenroth & D. L. Segal (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychological assessment, vol. 2: Personality assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Bagby, R. M., & Farvolden, P. (2004). The personality diagnostic questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4). In M. J. Hilsenroth & D. L. Segal (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychological assessment, vol. 2: Personality assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
go back to reference Bailey, C. A., & Ostrov, J. M. (in press). Differentiating forms and functions of aggression in emerging adults: Associations with hostile attribution biases and normative beliefs. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Bailey, C. A., & Ostrov, J. M. (in press). Differentiating forms and functions of aggression in emerging adults: Associations with hostile attribution biases and normative beliefs. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.
go back to reference Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
go back to reference Barratt, E. S., Stanford, M. S., Dowdy, L., Liebman, M. J., & Kent, T. A. (1999). Impulsive and premeditated aggression: A factor analysis of self-reported acts. Psychiatry Research, 86, 163–174. PubMedCrossRef Barratt, E. S., Stanford, M. S., Dowdy, L., Liebman, M. J., & Kent, T. A. (1999). Impulsive and premeditated aggression: A factor analysis of self-reported acts. Psychiatry Research, 86, 163–174. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Barratt, E. S., Stanford, M. S., Felthous, A. R., & Kent, T. A. (1997a). The effects of phenytoin on impulsive and premeditated aggression: A controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 341–349. PubMedCrossRef Barratt, E. S., Stanford, M. S., Felthous, A. R., & Kent, T. A. (1997a). The effects of phenytoin on impulsive and premeditated aggression: A controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 341–349. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Barratt, E. S., Stanford, M. S., Kent, T. A., & Felthous, A. (1997). Neuropsychological and cognitive psychophysiological substrates of impulsive aggression. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 1045–1061. PubMedCrossRef Barratt, E. S., Stanford, M. S., Kent, T. A., & Felthous, A. (1997). Neuropsychological and cognitive psychophysiological substrates of impulsive aggression. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 1045–1061. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Benning, S. D., Patrick, C. J., Hicks, B. M., Blonigen, D. M., & Krueger, R. F. (2003). Factor structure of the psychopathic personality inventory: Validity and implications for clinical assessment. Psychological Assessment, 15, 340–350. PubMedCrossRef Benning, S. D., Patrick, C. J., Hicks, B. M., Blonigen, D. M., & Krueger, R. F. (2003). Factor structure of the psychopathic personality inventory: Validity and implications for clinical assessment. Psychological Assessment, 15, 340–350. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Benning, S. D., Patrick, C. J., Salekin, R. T., & Leistico, A.-M. R. (2005). Convergent and discriminant validity of psychopathy factors assessed via self report: A comparison of three instruments. Assessment, 12, 270–289. PubMedCrossRef Benning, S. D., Patrick, C. J., Salekin, R. T., & Leistico, A.-M. R. (2005). Convergent and discriminant validity of psychopathy factors assessed via self report: A comparison of three instruments. Assessment, 12, 270–289. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Berkowitz, L. (1963). Aggression: A social psychological analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill. Berkowitz, L. (1963). Aggression: A social psychological analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill.
go back to reference Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Is it time to pull the plug on the hostile versus instrumental aggression dichotomy? Psychology Review, 108, 273–279. CrossRef Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Is it time to pull the plug on the hostile versus instrumental aggression dichotomy? Psychology Review, 108, 273–279. CrossRef
go back to reference Chabrol, H., Rousseau, A., Callahan, S., & Hyler, S. E. (2007). Frequency and structure of DSM-IV personality disorder traits in college students. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1767–1776. CrossRef Chabrol, H., Rousseau, A., Callahan, S., & Hyler, S. E. (2007). Frequency and structure of DSM-IV personality disorder traits in college students. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1767–1776. CrossRef
go back to reference Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, (2nd ed.). New York: Academic Press. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, (2nd ed.). New York: Academic Press.
go back to reference Conner, K. R., Houston, R. J., Sworts, L. M., & Meldrum, S. (2007) Reliability of the impulsive-premeditated aggression scale (IPAS) in treated opiate dependent individuals. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 655–659. PubMedCrossRef Conner, K. R., Houston, R. J., Sworts, L. M., & Meldrum, S. (2007) Reliability of the impulsive-premeditated aggression scale (IPAS) in treated opiate dependent individuals. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 655–659. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cote, S. M., Vaillancourt, T., & LeBlanc, J. C. (2006). The development of physical aggression from toddlerhood to pre-adolescence: A nation wide longitudinal study of Canadian children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 71–85. PubMedCrossRef Cote, S. M., Vaillancourt, T., & LeBlanc, J. C. (2006). The development of physical aggression from toddlerhood to pre-adolescence: A nation wide longitudinal study of Canadian children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 71–85. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1996). Social information-processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression. Child Development 67, 993–1002. PubMedCrossRef Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1996). Social information-processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression. Child Development 67, 993–1002. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710–722. PubMedCrossRef Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710–722. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Crick, N. R., Murray-Close, D., & Woods, K. A. (2005). Borderline personality features in childhood: A shorter-term longitudinal study. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 1051–1070. PubMedCrossRef Crick, N. R., Murray-Close, D., & Woods, K. A. (2005). Borderline personality features in childhood: A shorter-term longitudinal study. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 1051–1070. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Crick, N. R., Ostrov, J. M., & Kawabata, Y. (2007). Relational aggression and gender: An overview. In D. J. Flannery, A. T. Vazsonyi, & I. D. Waldman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of violent behavior and aggression (pp. 245–259). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Crick, N. R., Ostrov, J. M., & Kawabata, Y. (2007). Relational aggression and gender: An overview. In D. J. Flannery, A. T. Vazsonyi, & I. D. Waldman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of violent behavior and aggression (pp. 245–259). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Day, D. M., Bream, L. A., & Pal, A. (1992). Proactive and reactive aggression: An analysis of subtypes based on teacher perceptions. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 210–217. CrossRef Day, D. M., Bream, L. A., & Pal, A. (1992). Proactive and reactive aggression: An analysis of subtypes based on teacher perceptions. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 210–217. CrossRef
go back to reference Dodge, K. A. (1991). The structure and function of reactive and proactive aggression. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Dodge, K. A. (1991). The structure and function of reactive and proactive aggression. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
go back to reference Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1146–1158. PubMedCrossRef Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1146–1158. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dodge, K. A., Coie, J. D., & Lynam, D. (2006). Aggression and antisocial behavior in youth. In W. Damon (Series Ed.), & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 719–788). New York, NY: Wiley. Dodge, K. A., Coie, J. D., & Lynam, D. (2006). Aggression and antisocial behavior in youth. In W. Damon (Series Ed.), & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 719–788). New York, NY: Wiley.
go back to reference Fite, P. J., & Colder, C. R. (2007). Proactive and reactive aggression and peer delinquency: Implications for prevention and intervention. Journal of Early Adolescence, 27, 223–240. CrossRef Fite, P. J., & Colder, C. R. (2007). Proactive and reactive aggression and peer delinquency: Implications for prevention and intervention. Journal of Early Adolescence, 27, 223–240. CrossRef
go back to reference Fite, P. J., Colder, C. R., & Pelham, W. E. Jr. (2006). A factor analytic approach to distinguish pure and co-occurring dimensions of proactive and reactive aggression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 578–582. PubMedCrossRef Fite, P. J., Colder, C. R., & Pelham, W. E. Jr. (2006). A factor analytic approach to distinguish pure and co-occurring dimensions of proactive and reactive aggression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 578–582. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fite, P. J., Stauffacher, K., Ostrov, J. M., & Colder, C. (in press). Replication and extension of Little et al.’s (2003) forms and functions of aggression measure. International Journal of Behavioral Development. Fite, P. J., Stauffacher, K., Ostrov, J. M., & Colder, C. (in press). Replication and extension of Little et al.’s (2003) forms and functions of aggression measure. International Journal of Behavioral Development.
go back to reference Forouzan, E., & Cooke, D. J. (2005). Figuring out la femme fatale: Conceptual and assessment issues concerning psychopathy in females. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 23, 765–778. PubMedCrossRef Forouzan, E., & Cooke, D. J. (2005). Figuring out la femme fatale: Conceptual and assessment issues concerning psychopathy in females. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 23, 765–778. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fossati, A., Barratt, E. S., Carretta, I., Leonardi, B., Grazioli, F., & Maffei, C. (2004) Predicting borderline and antisocial personality disorder features in nonclinical subjects using measures of impulsivity and aggressiveness. Psychiatry Research, 125, 161–170. PubMedCrossRef Fossati, A., Barratt, E. S., Carretta, I., Leonardi, B., Grazioli, F., & Maffei, C. (2004) Predicting borderline and antisocial personality disorder features in nonclinical subjects using measures of impulsivity and aggressiveness. Psychiatry Research, 125, 161–170. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Frick, P. J., Bodin, S. D., & Barry, C. T. (2000). Psychopathic traits and conduct problems in a community and clinic-referred samples of children: Further development of the psychopathy screening device. Psychological Assessment, 12, 382–393. PubMedCrossRef Frick, P. J., Bodin, S. D., & Barry, C. T. (2000). Psychopathic traits and conduct problems in a community and clinic-referred samples of children: Further development of the psychopathy screening device. Psychological Assessment, 12, 382–393. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Frick, P. J., Cornell, A. H., Barry, C. T., Bodin, S. D., & Dane, H. E. (2003). Callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems in the prediction of conduct problem severity, aggression, and self-report of delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 457–470. PubMedCrossRef Frick, P. J., Cornell, A. H., Barry, C. T., Bodin, S. D., & Dane, H. E. (2003). Callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems in the prediction of conduct problem severity, aggression, and self-report of delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 457–470. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Galen, B. R., & Underwood, M. K. (1997). A developmental investigation of social aggression among children. Developmental Psychology, 33, 589–600. PubMedCrossRef Galen, B. R., & Underwood, M. K. (1997). A developmental investigation of social aggression among children. Developmental Psychology, 33, 589–600. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Geiger, T., & Crick, N. R. (2001). A developmental psychopathology perspective on vulnerability to personality disorders. In R. Ingram & J. M. Price (Eds.), Vulnerability to psychopathology: Risk across the life span (pp. 57–102). New York: Guilford Press. Geiger, T., & Crick, N. R. (2001). A developmental psychopathology perspective on vulnerability to personality disorders. In R. Ingram & J. M. Price (Eds.), Vulnerability to psychopathology: Risk across the life span (pp. 57–102). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Goldstein, S. E., Chesir-Teran, D., & McFaul, A. (2008). Profiles and correlates of relational aggression in young adults’ romantic relationships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 251–265. CrossRef Goldstein, S. E., Chesir-Teran, D., & McFaul, A. (2008). Profiles and correlates of relational aggression in young adults’ romantic relationships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 251–265. CrossRef
go back to reference Goldstein, S. E., Young, A., & Boyd, C. (in press). Relational aggression at school: Associations with school safety and social climiate. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Goldstein, S. E., Young, A., & Boyd, C. (in press). Relational aggression at school: Associations with school safety and social climiate. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.
go back to reference Haden, S. C., Scarpa, A., & Stanford, M. S. (2007). Validation of the impulsive/premeditated aggression scale in college students; submitted for publication. Haden, S. C., Scarpa, A., & Stanford, M. S. (2007). Validation of the impulsive/premeditated aggression scale in college students; submitted for publication.
go back to reference Hare, R. D. (1991). The hare psychopathy checklist—revised. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems. Hare, R. D. (1991). The hare psychopathy checklist—revised. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.
go back to reference Harpur, T. J., Hare, R. D., & Hakstian, A. R. (1989). Two-factor conceptualization of psychopathy: Construct validity and assessment implications. Psychological Assessment, 1, 6–17. CrossRef Harpur, T. J., Hare, R. D., & Hakstian, A. R. (1989). Two-factor conceptualization of psychopathy: Construct validity and assessment implications. Psychological Assessment, 1, 6–17. CrossRef
go back to reference Houston, R. J., & Conner, K. R. (2006). Characterization of aggressive behavior in substance users: Preliminary findings [Abstract]. Presentation at the XVII World Meeting of the International Society for Research on Aggression, Minneapolis, MN. Houston, R. J., & Conner, K. R. (2006). Characterization of aggressive behavior in substance users: Preliminary findings [Abstract]. Presentation at the XVII World Meeting of the International Society for Research on Aggression, Minneapolis, MN.
go back to reference Houston, R. J., & Stanford, M. S. (2006). Characterization of aggressive behavior and phenytoin response. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 38–43. CrossRef Houston, R. J., & Stanford, M. S. (2006). Characterization of aggressive behavior and phenytoin response. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 38–43. CrossRef
go back to reference Houston, R. J., Stanford, M. S., Villemarette-Pittman, N. R., Conklin, S. M., & Helfritz, L. E. (2003). Neurobiological correlates and clinical implications of aggressive subtypes. Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 3, 67–87. CrossRef Houston, R. J., Stanford, M. S., Villemarette-Pittman, N. R., Conklin, S. M., & Helfritz, L. E. (2003). Neurobiological correlates and clinical implications of aggressive subtypes. Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 3, 67–87. CrossRef
go back to reference Huang, X., Ling, H., Yang, B., & Dou, G. (2007). Screening of personality disorders among Chinese college students by personality diagnostic questionnaire-4. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21, 448–454. PubMedCrossRef Huang, X., Ling, H., Yang, B., & Dou, G. (2007). Screening of personality disorders among Chinese college students by personality diagnostic questionnaire-4. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21, 448–454. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hubbard, J. A., Dodge, K. A., Cillessen, A. H. N., Coie, J. D., & Schwartz, D. (2001). The dyadic nature of social information processing in boys’ reactive and proactive aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 268–80. PubMedCrossRef Hubbard, J. A., Dodge, K. A., Cillessen, A. H. N., Coie, J. D., & Schwartz, D. (2001). The dyadic nature of social information processing in boys’ reactive and proactive aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 268–80. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hubbard, J. A., Parker, E. H., Ramsden, S. R., Flanagan, K. D., Relyea, N., Dearing, K., et al. (2004). The relations among observational, physiological, and self-report measures of children’s anger. Social Development, 13, 14–39. CrossRef Hubbard, J. A., Parker, E. H., Ramsden, S. R., Flanagan, K. D., Relyea, N., Dearing, K., et al. (2004). The relations among observational, physiological, and self-report measures of children’s anger. Social Development, 13, 14–39. CrossRef
go back to reference Hubbard, J. A., Smithmyer, C. M., Ramsden, S. R., Parker, E. H., Flanagan, K. D., Dearing, K. F., et al. (2002). Observational, physiological, and self-report measures of children’s anger: Relations to reactive versus proactive aggression. Child Development, 73, 1101–1118. PubMedCrossRef Hubbard, J. A., Smithmyer, C. M., Ramsden, S. R., Parker, E. H., Flanagan, K. D., Dearing, K. F., et al. (2002). Observational, physiological, and self-report measures of children’s anger: Relations to reactive versus proactive aggression. Child Development, 73, 1101–1118. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hunt, M. K., Hopko, D. R., Bare, R., Lejuez, C. W., & Robinson, E. V. (2005). Construct validity of the balloon analog risk task (BART): Associations with psychopathy and impulsivity. Assessment, 12, 416–428. PubMedCrossRef Hunt, M. K., Hopko, D. R., Bare, R., Lejuez, C. W., & Robinson, E. V. (2005). Construct validity of the balloon analog risk task (BART): Associations with psychopathy and impulsivity. Assessment, 12, 416–428. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hyler, S. E. (2003). Personality diagnostic questionnaire, version 4. New York, NY: Human Informatics. Hyler, S. E. (2003). Personality diagnostic questionnaire, version 4. New York, NY: Human Informatics.
go back to reference Hyler, S. E., Skodol, A. E., Kellman, D., Oldham, J. M., & Rosnick, L. (1990). Validity of the personality diagnostic questionnaire-revised: Comparison with two structured interviews. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1043–1048. PubMed Hyler, S. E., Skodol, A. E., Kellman, D., Oldham, J. M., & Rosnick, L. (1990). Validity of the personality diagnostic questionnaire-revised: Comparison with two structured interviews. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1043–1048. PubMed
go back to reference Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Chen, H., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. S. (2006). Parenting behaviors associated with risk for offspring personality disorder during adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 579–587. PubMedCrossRef Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Chen, H., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. S. (2006). Parenting behaviors associated with risk for offspring personality disorder during adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 579–587. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kimonis, E. R., Frick, P. J., Fazekas, H., & Loney, B. R. (2006). Psychopathy, aggression, and the processing of emotional stimuli in non-referred girls and boys. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 24, 21–37. PubMedCrossRef Kimonis, E. R., Frick, P. J., Fazekas, H., & Loney, B. R. (2006). Psychopathy, aggression, and the processing of emotional stimuli in non-referred girls and boys. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 24, 21–37. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press. Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Kockler, T. R., Stanford, M. S., Nelson, C. E., Meloy, J. R., & Sanford, K. (2006). Characterizing aggressive behavior in a forensic population. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 80–85. PubMedCrossRef Kockler, T. R., Stanford, M. S., Nelson, C. E., Meloy, J. R., & Sanford, K. (2006). Characterizing aggressive behavior in a forensic population. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 80–85. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lagerspetz, K. M. J., Björkqvist, K., & Peltonen, T. (1988). Is indirect aggression more typical of females? Gender differences in aggressiveness in 11- to 12-year-old children. Aggressive Behavior, 14, 403–414. CrossRef Lagerspetz, K. M. J., Björkqvist, K., & Peltonen, T. (1988). Is indirect aggression more typical of females? Gender differences in aggressiveness in 11- to 12-year-old children. Aggressive Behavior, 14, 403–414. CrossRef
go back to reference Lento-Zwolinski, J. (2007). College students’ self-report of psychosocial factors in reactive forms of relational and physical aggression. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 24, 407–421. CrossRef Lento-Zwolinski, J. (2007). College students’ self-report of psychosocial factors in reactive forms of relational and physical aggression. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 24, 407–421. CrossRef
go back to reference Lilienfeld, S. O., & Andrews, B. P. (1996). Development and preliminary validation of a self-report measure of psychopathic personality traits in noncriminal populations. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 488–524. PubMedCrossRef Lilienfeld, S. O., & Andrews, B. P. (1996). Development and preliminary validation of a self-report measure of psychopathic personality traits in noncriminal populations. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 488–524. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Linder, J. R., Crick, N. R., & Collins, W. A. (2002). Relational aggression and victimization in young adults’ romantic relationships: Associations with perceptions of parent, peer, and romantic relationship quality. Social Development, 11, 69–86. CrossRef Linder, J. R., Crick, N. R., & Collins, W. A. (2002). Relational aggression and victimization in young adults’ romantic relationships: Associations with perceptions of parent, peer, and romantic relationship quality. Social Development, 11, 69–86. CrossRef
go back to reference Little, T. D., Jones, S. M., Henrich, C. C., & Hawley, P. H. (2003). Disentangling the “whys” from the “whats” of aggressive behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 122–183. CrossRef Little, T. D., Jones, S. M., Henrich, C. C., & Hawley, P. H. (2003). Disentangling the “whys” from the “whats” of aggressive behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 122–183. CrossRef
go back to reference Loudin, J. L., Loukas, A., & Robinson, S. (2003). Relational aggression in college students: Examining the roles of social anxiety and empathy. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 430–439. CrossRef Loudin, J. L., Loukas, A., & Robinson, S. (2003). Relational aggression in college students: Examining the roles of social anxiety and empathy. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 430–439. CrossRef
go back to reference Marsee, M. A., & Frick, P. J. (2007). Exploring the cognitive and emotional correlates to proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of detained girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 969–981. PubMedCrossRef Marsee, M. A., & Frick, P. J. (2007). Exploring the cognitive and emotional correlates to proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of detained girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 969–981. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mathias, C. W., Stanford, M. S., Marsh, D. M., Frick, P. J., Moeller, F. G., Swann, A. C., et al. (2007). Characterizing aggressive behavior with the impulsive/premeditated aggression scale among adolescents with conduct disorder. Psychiatry Research, 151, 231–242. PubMedCrossRef Mathias, C. W., Stanford, M. S., Marsh, D. M., Frick, P. J., Moeller, F. G., Swann, A. C., et al. (2007). Characterizing aggressive behavior with the impulsive/premeditated aggression scale among adolescents with conduct disorder. Psychiatry Research, 151, 231–242. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference McHoskey, J. W. (2001). Machiavellianism and personality dysfunction. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 791–798. CrossRef McHoskey, J. W. (2001). Machiavellianism and personality dysfunction. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 791–798. CrossRef
go back to reference Miller, J. D., & Lynam, D. R. (2003). Psychopathy and the five-factor model of personality: A replication and extension. Journal of Personality Assessment, 81, 168–178. PubMedCrossRef Miller, J. D., & Lynam, D. R. (2003). Psychopathy and the five-factor model of personality: A replication and extension. Journal of Personality Assessment, 81, 168–178. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescent-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701. PubMedCrossRef Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescent-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Morales, J. R., & Crick, N. R. (1998). Self-report measure of aggression and victimization. Unpublished measure. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota. Morales, J. R., & Crick, N. R. (1998). Self-report measure of aggression and victimization. Unpublished measure. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.
go back to reference Murray-Close, D., Ostrov, J. M., Nelson, D. A., Crick, N. R., & Coccaro, E. F. (2008). Proactive, reactive and romantic relational aggression in adulthood: Measurement, predictive validity, and gender differences; submitted for publication. Murray-Close, D., Ostrov, J. M., Nelson, D. A., Crick, N. R., & Coccaro, E. F. (2008). Proactive, reactive and romantic relational aggression in adulthood: Measurement, predictive validity, and gender differences; submitted for publication.
go back to reference Nelson, L. J., Badger, S., & Wu, B. (2004). The influence of culture in emerging adulthood: Perspectives of Chinese college students. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 26–36. CrossRef Nelson, L. J., Badger, S., & Wu, B. (2004). The influence of culture in emerging adulthood: Perspectives of Chinese college students. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 26–36. CrossRef
go back to reference Nelson, D. A., Hart, C. H., Yang, C., Olsen, J. A., & Jin, S. (2006). Aversive parenting in China: Associations with child physical and relational aggression. Child Development, 77, 554–572. PubMedCrossRef Nelson, D. A., Hart, C. H., Yang, C., Olsen, J. A., & Jin, S. (2006). Aversive parenting in China: Associations with child physical and relational aggression. Child Development, 77, 554–572. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nelson, L. J., Padilla-Walker, Carroll, J. S., Madsen, S. D., Barry, C. M., & Badger, S. (2007). “If you want me to treat you like an adult, start acting like one!” comparing the criteria that emerging adults and their parents have for adulthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 665–674. Nelson, L. J., Padilla-Walker, Carroll, J. S., Madsen, S. D., Barry, C. M., & Badger, S. (2007). “If you want me to treat you like an adult, start acting like one!” comparing the criteria that emerging adults and their parents have for adulthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 665–674.
go back to reference NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2004). Trajectories of physical aggression from Toddlerhood to middle childhood. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 69, ( Serial No. 278). NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2004). Trajectories of physical aggression from Toddlerhood to middle childhood. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 69, ( Serial No. 278).
go back to reference Ostrov, J. M. (2006). Deception and subtypes of aggression in early childhood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 93, 322–336. PubMedCrossRef Ostrov, J. M. (2006). Deception and subtypes of aggression in early childhood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 93, 322–336. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ostrov, J. M., & Crick, N. R. (2007). Forms and functions of aggression during early childhood: A short-term longitudinal study. School Psychology Review, 36, 22–43. Ostrov, J. M., & Crick, N. R. (2007). Forms and functions of aggression during early childhood: A short-term longitudinal study. School Psychology Review, 36, 22–43.
go back to reference Poulin, F., & Boivin., M. (2000). Reactive and proactive aggression: Evidence of a two-factor model. Psychological Assessment, 12, 115–122. PubMedCrossRef Poulin, F., & Boivin., M. (2000). Reactive and proactive aggression: Evidence of a two-factor model. Psychological Assessment, 12, 115–122. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Price, J. M., & Dodge, K. A. (1989). Reactive and proactive aggression in childhood: Relations to peer status and social context dimensions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 17, 455–71. PubMedCrossRef Price, J. M., & Dodge, K. A. (1989). Reactive and proactive aggression in childhood: Relations to peer status and social context dimensions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 17, 455–71. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Prinstein, M. J., & Cillessen, A. H. N. (2003). Forms and functions of adolescent peer aggression associated with high levels of peer status. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49, 310–342. CrossRef Prinstein, M. J., & Cillessen, A. H. N. (2003). Forms and functions of adolescent peer aggression associated with high levels of peer status. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49, 310–342. CrossRef
go back to reference Pulkkinen, L. (1996). Proactive and reactive aggression in early adolescence as precursors to anti- and prosocial behaviors in young adults. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 241–257. CrossRef Pulkkinen, L. (1996). Proactive and reactive aggression in early adolescence as precursors to anti- and prosocial behaviors in young adults. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 241–257. CrossRef
go back to reference Raine, A., Dodge, K., Loeber, R., Gatzke-Kopp, L., Lynam, D., Reynolds, C., et al. (2006). The reactive-proactive aggression questionnaire: Differential correlates of reactive and proactive aggression in adolescent boys. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 159–171. CrossRef Raine, A., Dodge, K., Loeber, R., Gatzke-Kopp, L., Lynam, D., Reynolds, C., et al. (2006). The reactive-proactive aggression questionnaire: Differential correlates of reactive and proactive aggression in adolescent boys. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 159–171. CrossRef
go back to reference Raine, A., Meloy, J. R., Bihrle, S., Stoddard, J., LaCasse, L., & Buchsbaum, M. S. (1998). Reduced prefrontal and increased subcortical brain functioning assessed using positron emission tomography in predatory and affective murderers. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 16, 319–332. PubMedCrossRef Raine, A., Meloy, J. R., Bihrle, S., Stoddard, J., LaCasse, L., & Buchsbaum, M. S. (1998). Reduced prefrontal and increased subcortical brain functioning assessed using positron emission tomography in predatory and affective murderers. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 16, 319–332. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Schad, M. M., Szwedo, D. E., Antonishak, J., Hare, A., & Allen, J. P. (2008). The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships: Predictions from peer pressure and links to psychosocial functioning. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 346–358. PubMedCrossRef Schad, M. M., Szwedo, D. E., Antonishak, J., Hare, A., & Allen, J. P. (2008). The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships: Predictions from peer pressure and links to psychosocial functioning. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 346–358. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Schwartz, D., McFadyen-Ketchum, S. A., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (1998). Peer group victimization as a predictor of children’s behavior problems at home and in school. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 87–99. PubMedCrossRef Schwartz, D., McFadyen-Ketchum, S. A., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (1998). Peer group victimization as a predictor of children’s behavior problems at home and in school. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 87–99. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Spear, L. P. (2000). Neurobehavioral changes in adolescence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 111–114. CrossRef Spear, L. P. (2000). Neurobehavioral changes in adolescence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 111–114. CrossRef
go back to reference Stanford, M. S., Greve, K. W., & Gerstle, J. E. (1997). Neuropsychological correlates of self-reported impulsive aggression in a college sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 23, 961–965. CrossRef Stanford, M. S., Greve, K. W., & Gerstle, J. E. (1997). Neuropsychological correlates of self-reported impulsive aggression in a college sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 23, 961–965. CrossRef
go back to reference Stanford, M. S., Houston, R. J., Mathias, C. W., Villemarette-Pittman, N. R., Helfritz, L. E., & Conklin, S. M. (2003). Characterizing aggressive behavior. Assessment, 10, 183–90. PubMedCrossRef Stanford, M. S., Houston, R. J., Mathias, C. W., Villemarette-Pittman, N. R., Helfritz, L. E., & Conklin, S. M. (2003). Characterizing aggressive behavior. Assessment, 10, 183–90. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Stanford, M. S., Houston, R. J., Villemarette-Pittman, N. R., & Greve, K. W. (2003). Premeditated aggression: Clinical assessment and cognitive psychophysiology. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 773–781. CrossRef Stanford, M. S., Houston, R. J., Villemarette-Pittman, N. R., & Greve, K. W. (2003). Premeditated aggression: Clinical assessment and cognitive psychophysiology. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 773–781. CrossRef
go back to reference Storch, E. A., & Masia-Warner, C. (2004). The relationship of peer victimization to Social anxiety and loneliness in adolescent females. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 351–362. Storch, E. A., & Masia-Warner, C. (2004). The relationship of peer victimization to Social anxiety and loneliness in adolescent females. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 351–362.
go back to reference Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.) . Boston: Pearson Press. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.) . Boston: Pearson Press.
go back to reference van Dulmen, M. H. M., Goncy, E. A., Haydon, K. C., & Collins, W. A. (2008). Distinctiveness of adolescent and emerging adult romantic relationship features in predicting externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 336–345. CrossRef van Dulmen, M. H. M., Goncy, E. A., Haydon, K. C., & Collins, W. A. (2008). Distinctiveness of adolescent and emerging adult romantic relationship features in predicting externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 336–345. CrossRef
go back to reference Vitaro, F., Gendreau, P. L., Tremblay, R. E., & Oligny, P. (1998). Reactive and proactive aggression differentially predict later conduct problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 377–385. PubMedCrossRef Vitaro, F., Gendreau, P. L., Tremblay, R. E., & Oligny, P. (1998). Reactive and proactive aggression differentially predict later conduct problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 377–385. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Waschbusch, D. A., Pelham, W. E., Jennings, J. R., Greiner, A. R., Tarter, R. E., & Moss, H. B. (2002). Reactive aggression in boys with disruptive behavior disorders: Behavior, physiology and affect. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 641–656. PubMedCrossRef Waschbusch, D. A., Pelham, W. E., Jennings, J. R., Greiner, A. R., Tarter, R. E., & Moss, H. B. (2002). Reactive aggression in boys with disruptive behavior disorders: Behavior, physiology and affect. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 641–656. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Werner, N. E., Crick, N. R. (1999). Relational aggression and social-psychological adjustment in a college sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 615–623. PubMedCrossRef Werner, N. E., Crick, N. R. (1999). Relational aggression and social-psychological adjustment in a college sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 615–623. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Werner, N. E., & Nixon, C. L. (2005). Normative beliefs and relational aggression: An investigation of the cognitive bases of adolescent aggressive behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 229–243. CrossRef Werner, N. E., & Nixon, C. L. (2005). Normative beliefs and relational aggression: An investigation of the cognitive bases of adolescent aggressive behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 229–243. CrossRef
go back to reference Wilson, D. L., Frick, P. J., & Clements, C. B. (1999). Gender, somatization and psychopathic traits in a college sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 21, 221–235. CrossRef Wilson, D. L., Frick, P. J., & Clements, C. B. (1999). Gender, somatization and psychopathic traits in a college sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 21, 221–235. CrossRef
go back to reference Woodworth, M., & Porter, S. (2002). In cold blood: Characteristics of criminal homicides as a function of psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 436–445. PubMedCrossRef Woodworth, M., & Porter, S. (2002). In cold blood: Characteristics of criminal homicides as a function of psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 436–445. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Young, E. L., Boye, A. E., & Nelson, D. A. (2006). Relational aggression: Understanding, identifying and responding in schools. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 297–312. CrossRef Young, E. L., Boye, A. E., & Nelson, D. A. (2006). Relational aggression: Understanding, identifying and responding in schools. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 297–312. CrossRef
go back to reference Zalecki, C. A., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2004). Overt and relational aggression in girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 125–137. PubMedCrossRef Zalecki, C. A., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2004). Overt and relational aggression in girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 125–137. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Geiger, T. C., & Crick, N. R. (2005). Relational and physical aggression, prosocial behavior, and peer relations: Gender moderation and bidirectional associations. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 421–452. CrossRef Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Geiger, T. C., & Crick, N. R. (2005). Relational and physical aggression, prosocial behavior, and peer relations: Gender moderation and bidirectional associations. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 421–452. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
The Utility of Forms and Functions of Aggression in Emerging Adulthood: Association with Personality Disorder Symptomatology
Auteurs
Jamie M. Ostrov
Rebecca J. Houston
Publicatiedatum
01-10-2008
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 9/2008
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-008-9289-4