Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

16-08-2021 | Original Article

The unconscious mental inhibiting process of human maximal voluntary contraction

Auteurs: Yudai Takarada, Daichi Nozaki

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 5/2022

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Human maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) is believed to be limited by neural inhibition. Motivational goal priming alters background states of the motor system, leading to enhanced MVC. However, the mechanisms that determine the constant inhibition of force exertion in the motor system remain unclear. The primary behavioural goal of MVC is maximal voluntary force exertion. The final expected or desired state of this behavioural goal is explicitly demonstrated with words related to physical exertion, such as ‘maximal’, irrespective of the possibility of demand-like properties in participants’ minds, such as attainability and/or desirability of the goal. For the primed maximal goal state, most trial results fail to meet expectations, demonstrating negative affect that, without awareness, contributes to the mentioned inhibitory mechanism underlying MVC. We therefore speculated that the behavioural goal of MVC contributes to neural inhibitory mechanisms underlying MVC. In our study, we used a previously developed paradigm (Takarada and Nozaki in Scientific Reports 8: 10135, 2018) in which subliminal visual priming stimuli such as the physical exertion-related words “perform” and “exert” were presented to 12 healthy participants and were followed by supraliminal words that were the word “maximal” or neutral.We found that when combined with the term ‘maximal’ in the consciously visible form, the effect of this subliminal motor-goal priming in inducing pupil dilation and stronger action preparation/execution was abolished without conscious awareness. This is the first objective evidence of motor inhibitory effect-predicting patterns of pupil-linked noradrenergic activity as a signature of a type of mental inhibition underlying the MVC behavioural goal.
Literatuur
go back to reference Aarts, H., & Custers, R. (2007). The nonconscious cessation of goal pursuit: When goals and negative affect are coactivated. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 165–178.CrossRef Aarts, H., & Custers, R. (2007). The nonconscious cessation of goal pursuit: When goals and negative affect are coactivated. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 165–178.CrossRef
go back to reference Aarts, H., Custers, R., & Marien, H. (2008). Preparing and motivating behaviour outside of awareness. Science, 319, 1639.CrossRef Aarts, H., Custers, R., & Marien, H. (2008). Preparing and motivating behaviour outside of awareness. Science, 319, 1639.CrossRef
go back to reference Arnsten, A. F., & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1985). Alpha 2-adrenergic mechanisms in prefrontal cortex associated with cognitive decline in aged nonhuman primates. Science, 230, 1273–1276.CrossRef Arnsten, A. F., & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1985). Alpha 2-adrenergic mechanisms in prefrontal cortex associated with cognitive decline in aged nonhuman primates. Science, 230, 1273–1276.CrossRef
go back to reference Bargh, J. A., Gollwitzer, P. M., Lee-Chai, A., Barndollar, K., & Trötsche, R. (2001). The automated will: Nonconscious activation and pursuit of behavioural goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1014–1027.CrossRef Bargh, J. A., Gollwitzer, P. M., Lee-Chai, A., Barndollar, K., & Trötsche, R. (2001). The automated will: Nonconscious activation and pursuit of behavioural goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1014–1027.CrossRef
go back to reference Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2009). The unconscious eye opener: Pupil dilation reveals strategic recruitment of resources upon presentation of subliminal reward cues. Psychological Science, 20, 1313–1315.CrossRef Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2009). The unconscious eye opener: Pupil dilation reveals strategic recruitment of resources upon presentation of subliminal reward cues. Psychological Science, 20, 1313–1315.CrossRef
go back to reference Borg, G. A. (1982). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 14, 377–381. Borg, G. A. (1982). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 14, 377–381.
go back to reference Bouret, S., & Richmond, B. J. (2009). Relation of locus coeruleus neurons in monkeys to Pavlovian and operant behaviours. The Journal of Neurophysiology, 101, 898–911.CrossRef Bouret, S., & Richmond, B. J. (2009). Relation of locus coeruleus neurons in monkeys to Pavlovian and operant behaviours. The Journal of Neurophysiology, 101, 898–911.CrossRef
go back to reference Bouret, S., Ravel, S., & Richmond, B. J. (2012). Complementary neural correlates of motivation in dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons of monkeys. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 6, 40.CrossRef Bouret, S., Ravel, S., & Richmond, B. J. (2012). Complementary neural correlates of motivation in dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons of monkeys. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 6, 40.CrossRef
go back to reference Coull, J. T., Buchel, C., Friston, K. J., & Frith, C. D. (1999). Noradrenergically mediated plasticity in a human attentional neuronal network. NeuroImage, 10, 705–715.CrossRef Coull, J. T., Buchel, C., Friston, K. J., & Frith, C. D. (1999). Noradrenergically mediated plasticity in a human attentional neuronal network. NeuroImage, 10, 705–715.CrossRef
go back to reference Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2005). Positive affect implicit motivator: On the nonconscious operation of behavioural goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 129–142.CrossRef Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2005). Positive affect implicit motivator: On the nonconscious operation of behavioural goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 129–142.CrossRef
go back to reference Custers, R. H., & Aarts, H. (2007). In search of the nonconscious sources of goal pursuit: Accessibility and positive affective valence of the goal state. The Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 312–318.CrossRef Custers, R. H., & Aarts, H. (2007). In search of the nonconscious sources of goal pursuit: Accessibility and positive affective valence of the goal state. The Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 312–318.CrossRef
go back to reference Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. Putnam. Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. Putnam.
go back to reference De Houwer, J., Thomas, S., & Baeyens, F. (2001). Association learning of likes and dislikes: A review of 25 years of research on human evaluative conditioning. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 853–869.CrossRef De Houwer, J., Thomas, S., & Baeyens, F. (2001). Association learning of likes and dislikes: A review of 25 years of research on human evaluative conditioning. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 853–869.CrossRef
go back to reference Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319–340.CrossRef Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319–340.CrossRef
go back to reference Hunsicker, P. A., & Donnelly, R. J. (1955). Instruments to measure strength. Research Quarterly, 26, 408–420. Hunsicker, P. A., & Donnelly, R. J. (1955). Instruments to measure strength. Research Quarterly, 26, 408–420.
go back to reference Ikai, M., & Steinhaus, A. H. (1961). Some factors modifying the expression of human strength. Journal of Applied Physiology, 16, 157–163.CrossRef Ikai, M., & Steinhaus, A. H. (1961). Some factors modifying the expression of human strength. Journal of Applied Physiology, 16, 157–163.CrossRef
go back to reference Larsen, R. S., & Waters, J. (2018). Neuromodulatory correlates of pupil dilation. Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 12, 21.CrossRef Larsen, R. S., & Waters, J. (2018). Neuromodulatory correlates of pupil dilation. Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 12, 21.CrossRef
go back to reference Lau, H. C., & Passingham, R. E. (2007). Unconscious activation of the cognitive control system in the human prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 5805–5811.CrossRef Lau, H. C., & Passingham, R. E. (2007). Unconscious activation of the cognitive control system in the human prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 5805–5811.CrossRef
go back to reference Mair, R. D., Zhang, Y., Bailey, K. R., Toupin, M. M., & Mair, R. G. (2005). Effects of clonidine in the locus coeruleus on prefrontal- and hippocampal-dependent measures of attention and memory in the rat. Psychopharmacology (berl), 181, 280–288.CrossRef Mair, R. D., Zhang, Y., Bailey, K. R., Toupin, M. M., & Mair, R. G. (2005). Effects of clonidine in the locus coeruleus on prefrontal- and hippocampal-dependent measures of attention and memory in the rat. Psychopharmacology (berl), 181, 280–288.CrossRef
go back to reference McNair, P. J., Depledge, J., Brettkelly, M., & Stanley, S. N. (1996). Verbal encouragement: Effects on maximum effort voluntary muscle action. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 30, 243–245.CrossRef McNair, P. J., Depledge, J., Brettkelly, M., & Stanley, S. N. (1996). Verbal encouragement: Effects on maximum effort voluntary muscle action. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 30, 243–245.CrossRef
go back to reference Montes, D. R., Stopper, C. M., & Floresco, S. B. (2015). Noradrenergic modulation of risk/reward decision making. Psychopharmacology (berl), 232, 2681–2696.CrossRef Montes, D. R., Stopper, C. M., & Floresco, S. B. (2015). Noradrenergic modulation of risk/reward decision making. Psychopharmacology (berl), 232, 2681–2696.CrossRef
go back to reference Nuzzo, J. L., Taylor, J. L., & Gandevia, S. C. (2019). CORP: Measurement of upper and lower limb muscle strength and voluntary activation. Journal of Applied Physiology, 126, 513–543.CrossRef Nuzzo, J. L., Taylor, J. L., & Gandevia, S. C. (2019). CORP: Measurement of upper and lower limb muscle strength and voluntary activation. Journal of Applied Physiology, 126, 513–543.CrossRef
go back to reference Oldfield, R. C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9, 97–113.CrossRef Oldfield, R. C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9, 97–113.CrossRef
go back to reference Ramos, B. P., & Arnsten, A. F. (2007). Adrenergic pharmacology and cognition: Focus on the prefrontal cortex. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 113, 523–536.CrossRef Ramos, B. P., & Arnsten, A. F. (2007). Adrenergic pharmacology and cognition: Focus on the prefrontal cortex. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 113, 523–536.CrossRef
go back to reference Takarada, Y., & Nozaki, D. (2014). Maximal voluntary force strengthened by the enhancement of motor system state through barely visible priming words with reward. PLoS ONE, 9, e109422.CrossRef Takarada, Y., & Nozaki, D. (2014). Maximal voluntary force strengthened by the enhancement of motor system state through barely visible priming words with reward. PLoS ONE, 9, e109422.CrossRef
go back to reference Takarada, Y., & Nozaki, D. (2017). Pupil dilations induced by barely conscious reward goal-priming. Neuropsychologia, 103, 69–76.CrossRef Takarada, Y., & Nozaki, D. (2017). Pupil dilations induced by barely conscious reward goal-priming. Neuropsychologia, 103, 69–76.CrossRef
go back to reference Takarada, Y., & Nozaki, D. (2018). Motivational goal-priming with or without awareness produces faster and stronger force exertion. Scientific Reports, 8, 10135.CrossRef Takarada, Y., & Nozaki, D. (2018). Motivational goal-priming with or without awareness produces faster and stronger force exertion. Scientific Reports, 8, 10135.CrossRef
go back to reference Ventura, R., Latagliata, E. C., Morrone, C., La Mela, I., & Puglisi-Allegra, S. (2008). Prefrontal norepinephrine determines attribution of “high” motivational salience. PLoS ONE, 3, e3044.CrossRef Ventura, R., Latagliata, E. C., Morrone, C., La Mela, I., & Puglisi-Allegra, S. (2008). Prefrontal norepinephrine determines attribution of “high” motivational salience. PLoS ONE, 3, e3044.CrossRef
go back to reference Ventura, R., Morrone, C., & Puglisi-Allegra, S. (2007). Prefrontal/accumbal catecholamine system determines motivational salience attribution to both reward- and aversion-related stimuli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 5181–5186.CrossRef Ventura, R., Morrone, C., & Puglisi-Allegra, S. (2007). Prefrontal/accumbal catecholamine system determines motivational salience attribution to both reward- and aversion-related stimuli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 5181–5186.CrossRef
go back to reference Wang, J., Zhang, G., & Shi, J. (2015). Pupil and glint detection using wearable camera sensor and near-infrared LED array. Sensors, 15, 30126–30141.CrossRef Wang, J., Zhang, G., & Shi, J. (2015). Pupil and glint detection using wearable camera sensor and near-infrared LED array. Sensors, 15, 30126–30141.CrossRef
go back to reference Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1107.CrossRef Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1107.CrossRef
go back to reference Welch, A. S., & Tschampl, M. (2012). Something to shout about: A simple, quick performance enhancement technique improved strength in both experts and novices. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 24, 418–428. Welch, A. S., & Tschampl, M. (2012). Something to shout about: A simple, quick performance enhancement technique improved strength in both experts and novices. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 24, 418–428.
go back to reference Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist, 35, 151–175.CrossRef Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist, 35, 151–175.CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
The unconscious mental inhibiting process of human maximal voluntary contraction
Auteurs
Yudai Takarada
Daichi Nozaki
Publicatiedatum
16-08-2021
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 5/2022
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-021-01578-3

Andere artikelen Uitgave 5/2022

Psychological Research 5/2022 Naar de uitgave