Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

14-02-2017 | Original Paper

The Timing and Intensity of Maternal Employment in Early Childhood: Implications for Canadian Children

Auteurs: Teresa Katherine Lightbody, Deanna Lynn Williamson

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 5/2017

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study focused on the associations between timing and intensity of maternal employment in early childhood and the developmental outcomes of young Canadian children. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth using multiple linear regression. We tested the associations between mothers’ employment in the first four years of children’s lives and motor and social development of zero to 4-year-old-children and receptive language of 4 and 5-year-old-children. We also examined the association between working more than 20 h a week during the first 2 years of children’s lives and children’s outcomes. We found that mothers who returned to work when their children were between 0 and 4 years old had enhanced motor and social development in comparison to children of mothers who did not work during this time. Additionally, findings showed that relative to children of mothers who worked 20 h or less a week in the first 2 years of their children’s lives, in particular between 12 and 17 months, children of mothers who worked more than 20 h had lower receptive language scores at 4 and 5 years of age. These findings have implications for maternity and parental leave policy in Canada.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference Baker, M. (2006). Restructuring family policies. Convergences & divergences. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Baker, M. (2006). Restructuring family policies. Convergences & divergences. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
go back to reference Baker, M., & Milligan, K. (2008). Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: Evidence from maternity leave. Journal of Health Economics, 27, 871–887.CrossRefPubMed Baker, M., & Milligan, K. (2008). Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: Evidence from maternity leave. Journal of Health Economics, 27, 871–887.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baker, P. C. & Mott, F. L. (1989). NLSY child handbook 1989: A guide and resource document for the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1986 child data. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University, Center for Human Resource Research. Baker, P. C. & Mott, F. L. (1989). NLSY child handbook 1989: A guide and resource document for the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1986 child data. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University, Center for Human Resource Research.
go back to reference Baydar, N., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1991). Effects of maternal employment and child-care arrangements on preschoolers’ cognitive and behavioral outcomes: Evidence from the children of the national longitudinal survey of youth. Developmental Psychology, 27, 932–945.CrossRef Baydar, N., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1991). Effects of maternal employment and child-care arrangements on preschoolers’ cognitive and behavioral outcomes: Evidence from the children of the national longitudinal survey of youth. Developmental Psychology, 27, 932–945.CrossRef
go back to reference Belsky, J., & Eggebeen, D. (1991). Early and extensive maternal employment/child care and 4-6 years olds socioemotional development: Children of the national longitudinal survey of youth. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 1083–1099.CrossRef Belsky, J., & Eggebeen, D. (1991). Early and extensive maternal employment/child care and 4-6 years olds socioemotional development: Children of the national longitudinal survey of youth. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 1083–1099.CrossRef
go back to reference Bernard, J. Y., De Agostini, M., Forhan, A., Alfaiate, T., Bonet, M., Champion, V., Kaminski, M., de Lauzon-Guillain, B., Charles, M., & Heude, B., EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study Group. (2013). Breastfeeding duration and cognitive development at 2 and 3 years of aged in the EDEN mother-child cohort. The Journal of Pediatrics, 163, 36–42.CrossRefPubMed Bernard, J. Y., De Agostini, M., Forhan, A., Alfaiate, T., Bonet, M., Champion, V., Kaminski, M., de Lauzon-Guillain, B., Charles, M., & Heude, B., EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study Group. (2013). Breastfeeding duration and cognitive development at 2 and 3 years of aged in the EDEN mother-child cohort. The Journal of Pediatrics, 163, 36–42.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Blau, F. D., & Grossberg, A. J. (1992). Maternal labor supply and children’s cognitive development. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 74, 474–481.CrossRef Blau, F. D., & Grossberg, A. J. (1992). Maternal labor supply and children’s cognitive development. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 74, 474–481.CrossRef
go back to reference Boyd, W., Thorpe, K., & Tayler, C. (2010). Preferences of first-time expectant mothers for care of their child: “I wouldn’t leave them somewhere that made me feel in secure.” Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 35, 4–12. Boyd, W., Thorpe, K., & Tayler, C. (2010). Preferences of first-time expectant mothers for care of their child: “I wouldn’t leave them somewhere that made me feel in secure.” Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 35, 4–12.
go back to reference Boyd, W., Walker, S., & Thorpe, K. (2013). Choosing work and care: Four Australian women negotiating return to paid work in the first year of motherhood. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 14, 168–178.CrossRef Boyd, W., Walker, S., & Thorpe, K. (2013). Choosing work and care: Four Australian women negotiating return to paid work in the first year of motherhood. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 14, 168–178.CrossRef
go back to reference Bronars, S. G., & Grogger, J. (1994). The economic consequences of unwed motherhood: Using twin births as a natural experiment. American Economic Review, 84, 1141–1156. Bronars, S. G., & Grogger, J. (1994). The economic consequences of unwed motherhood: Using twin births as a natural experiment. American Economic Review, 84, 1141–1156.
go back to reference Brooks-Gunn, J., Han, W., & Waldfogel, J. (2002). Maternal employment and child cognitive outcomes in the first three years of life: The NICHD study of early child care. Child Development, 73, 1052–1072.CrossRefPubMed Brooks-Gunn, J., Han, W., & Waldfogel, J. (2002). Maternal employment and child cognitive outcomes in the first three years of life: The NICHD study of early child care. Child Development, 73, 1052–1072.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brooks-Gunn, J., Han, W., & Waldfogel, J. (2010). First-year maternal employment and child development in the first 7 years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 75, 1–147.CrossRef Brooks-Gunn, J., Han, W., & Waldfogel, J. (2010). First-year maternal employment and child development in the first 7 years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 75, 1–147.CrossRef
go back to reference Chatterji, P., & Frick, K. D. (2005). Does returning to work after childbirth affect breast feeding practices? Review of Economics of the Household, 3, 315–335.CrossRef Chatterji, P., & Frick, K. D. (2005). Does returning to work after childbirth affect breast feeding practices? Review of Economics of the Household, 3, 315–335.CrossRef
go back to reference Choi, Y., Bishai, D., & Minkovitz, C. S. (2009). Multiple births are a risk factor for postpartum maternal depressive symptoms. Pediatrics, 123, 1147–1154.CrossRefPubMed Choi, Y., Bishai, D., & Minkovitz, C. S. (2009). Multiple births are a risk factor for postpartum maternal depressive symptoms. Pediatrics, 123, 1147–1154.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cooksey, E., Joshi, H., & Verropoulou, G. (2009). Does mothers’ employment affect children’s development? Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, 1, 95–115. Cooksey, E., Joshi, H., & Verropoulou, G. (2009). Does mothers’ employment affect children’s development? Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, 1, 95–115.
go back to reference Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1981). Peabody picture vocabulary test (revised). Circle Pines, Minnesota: American Guidance Service. Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1981). Peabody picture vocabulary test (revised). Circle Pines, Minnesota: American Guidance Service.
go back to reference Ferrao, V. (2010). Women in Canada: A gender-based statistical report. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Paid work (Catalogue No. 89-503-X). Ferrao, V. (2010). Women in Canada: A gender-based statistical report. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Paid work (Catalogue No. 89-503-X).
go back to reference Gaudet, S., Cooke, M., & Jacob, J. (2011). Working after childbirth: A lifecourse transition analysis of Canadian women from the 1970s to the 2000s. Canadian Review of Sociology, 48, 153–180.CrossRefPubMed Gaudet, S., Cooke, M., & Jacob, J. (2011). Working after childbirth: A lifecourse transition analysis of Canadian women from the 1970s to the 2000s. Canadian Review of Sociology, 48, 153–180.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Goldberg, W. A., Prause, J., Lucas-Thompson, R., & Himsel, A. (2008). Maternal employment and children’s achievement in context: A meta-analysis of four decades of research. Psychological Bulletin, 14, 77–108.CrossRef Goldberg, W. A., Prause, J., Lucas-Thompson, R., & Himsel, A. (2008). Maternal employment and children’s achievement in context: A meta-analysis of four decades of research. Psychological Bulletin, 14, 77–108.CrossRef
go back to reference Greenstein, T. N. (1993). Maternal employment and child behavioral outcomes: A household economics analysis. Journal of Family Issues, 14, 323–354.CrossRef Greenstein, T. N. (1993). Maternal employment and child behavioral outcomes: A household economics analysis. Journal of Family Issues, 14, 323–354.CrossRef
go back to reference Han, W., Waldfogel, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2001). The effects of early maternal employment on later cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 336–354.CrossRef Han, W., Waldfogel, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2001). The effects of early maternal employment on later cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 336–354.CrossRef
go back to reference Harris, N. (2008). Women’s reflections on choosing quality long day care in a regional community. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 33, 42–49. Harris, N. (2008). Women’s reflections on choosing quality long day care in a regional community. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 33, 42–49.
go back to reference Harvey, E. (1999). Short-term and long-term effects of early parental employment on children of the national longitudinal survey of youth. Developmental Psychology, 35, 445–459.CrossRefPubMed Harvey, E. (1999). Short-term and long-term effects of early parental employment on children of the national longitudinal survey of youth. Developmental Psychology, 35, 445–459.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hertzman, C. (2000). The case for an early childhood development strategy. Isuma, 1, 11–18. Hertzman, C. (2000). The case for an early childhood development strategy. Isuma, 1, 11–18.
go back to reference Hill, J. L., Waldfogel, J., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Han, W. (2005). Maternal employment and child development: A fresh look using newer methods. Developmental Psychology, 41, 833–850.CrossRefPubMed Hill, J. L., Waldfogel, J., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Han, W. (2005). Maternal employment and child development: A fresh look using newer methods. Developmental Psychology, 41, 833–850.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Huerta, M. C., Adema, W., Baxter, J., Corak, M., Deding, M., Gray, M. C., & Waldfogel, J. (2011). Early maternal employment and child development in five OECD countries. OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers (No. 118). OECD Publishing, Paris, France. Huerta, M. C., Adema, W., Baxter, J., Corak, M., Deding, M., Gray, M. C., & Waldfogel, J. (2011). Early maternal employment and child development in five OECD countries. OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers (No. 118). OECD Publishing, Paris, France.
go back to reference Huston, A. C. (2001). Child care and child development. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 1682–1686.CrossRef Huston, A. C. (2001). Child care and child development. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 1682–1686.CrossRef
go back to reference Jean, A. B., Goldman, D. P., & Joyce, G. (2011). Association between the birth of twins and parental divorce. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 117, 892–897.CrossRef Jean, A. B., Goldman, D. P., & Joyce, G. (2011). Association between the birth of twins and parental divorce. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 117, 892–897.CrossRef
go back to reference Kuhlthau, K., Kahn, R., Hill, K. S., Ghanasekaran, S., & Ettner, S. L. (2010). The well-being of parental caregivers of children with activity limitations. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 14, 155–163.CrossRefPubMed Kuhlthau, K., Kahn, R., Hill, K. S., Ghanasekaran, S., & Ettner, S. L. (2010). The well-being of parental caregivers of children with activity limitations. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 14, 155–163.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Laughlin, L. (2011). Maternity leave and employment patterns of first-time mothers: 1961-2008. Washington: U.S. Census Bureau. Laughlin, L. (2011). Maternity leave and employment patterns of first-time mothers: 1961-2008. Washington: U.S. Census Bureau.
go back to reference Lombardi, C. M., & Coley, R. L. (2014). Early maternal employment and children’s school readiness in contemporary families. Developmental Psychology, 50, 2071–2084.CrossRefPubMed Lombardi, C. M., & Coley, R. L. (2014). Early maternal employment and children’s school readiness in contemporary families. Developmental Psychology, 50, 2071–2084.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lombardi, C. M., & Coley, R. L. (2016). Early maternal employment and children’s academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Child Development. doi:10.1111/cdev.12588. Lombardi, C. M., & Coley, R. L. (2016). Early maternal employment and children’s academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Child Development. doi:10.​1111/​cdev.​12588.
go back to reference Lucas-Thompson, R. G., Goldberg, W. A., & Prause, J. (2010). Maternal work early in the lives of children and its distal associations with achievement and behavior problems: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 915–942.CrossRefPubMed Lucas-Thompson, R. G., Goldberg, W. A., & Prause, J. (2010). Maternal work early in the lives of children and its distal associations with achievement and behavior problems: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 915–942.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mistry, R. S., Biesanz, J. C., Taylor, L. C., Burchinal, M., & Cox, M. J. (2004). Family income and its relations to preschool children’s adjustment for families in NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Developmental Psychology, 40, 727–745.CrossRefPubMed Mistry, R. S., Biesanz, J. C., Taylor, L. C., Burchinal, M., & Cox, M. J. (2004). Family income and its relations to preschool children’s adjustment for families in NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Developmental Psychology, 40, 727–745.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mott, F. L., Baker, P. C., Ball, D. E., Keck, C. K., & Lenhart, S. M. (1995). The NLSY children 1992: Description and evaluation. Revise March 1998. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University, Center for Human Resource Research. Mott, F. L., Baker, P. C., Ball, D. E., Keck, C. K., & Lenhart, S. M. (1995). The NLSY children 1992: Description and evaluation. Revise March 1998. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University, Center for Human Resource Research.
go back to reference NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2001). Nonmaternal care and family factors in early development: An overview of the NICHD study of early child care. Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 457–492.CrossRef NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2001). Nonmaternal care and family factors in early development: An overview of the NICHD study of early child care. Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 457–492.CrossRef
go back to reference O’Connor, C., & Wright, A. (2013). Female career progression and maternity leave: An Irish exploration. Business and Economic Research, 3, 322–343. O’Connor, C., & Wright, A. (2013). Female career progression and maternity leave: An Irish exploration. Business and Economic Research, 3, 322–343.
go back to reference Parcel, T. L., & Menaghan, E. G. (1994). Early parental work, family social capital, and early childhood outcomes. The American Journal of Sociology, 99, 972–1009.CrossRef Parcel, T. L., & Menaghan, E. G. (1994). Early parental work, family social capital, and early childhood outcomes. The American Journal of Sociology, 99, 972–1009.CrossRef
go back to reference Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2010). Children’s differential susceptibility to effects of parenting. Family Science, 1, 14–25.CrossRef Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2010). Children’s differential susceptibility to effects of parenting. Family Science, 1, 14–25.CrossRef
go back to reference Poe, G. (1986). Design and procedures for the 1981 child health supplement to the National Interview Survey. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Centre for Health Statistics. Working paper services. Poe, G. (1986). Design and procedures for the 1981 child health supplement to the National Interview Survey. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Centre for Health Statistics. Working paper services.
go back to reference Rønsen, M., & Kitterød, R. H. (2012). Entry into work following childbirth among mothers in Norway: Recent trends and variation. Oslo: Statistics Norway. Rønsen, M., & Kitterød, R. H. (2012). Entry into work following childbirth among mothers in Norway: Recent trends and variation. Oslo: Statistics Norway.
go back to reference Ruhm, C. J. (2004). Parental employment and child cognitive development. The Journal of Human Resources, 39, 155–192.CrossRef Ruhm, C. J. (2004). Parental employment and child cognitive development. The Journal of Human Resources, 39, 155–192.CrossRef
go back to reference Samek, D., Koh, B. D., & Rueter, M. A. (2013). Overview of behavioral genetics research for family researchers. Journal of Family Therapy and Review, 5, 214–233.CrossRef Samek, D., Koh, B. D., & Rueter, M. A. (2013). Overview of behavioral genetics research for family researchers. Journal of Family Therapy and Review, 5, 214–233.CrossRef
go back to reference Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D. A. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington: National Academies Press. Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D. A. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington: National Academies Press.
go back to reference Statistics Canada. (1996). National longitudinal survey of children: Survey instruments for 1994-95 data collection—cycle. Ottawa: Statistics Canada 1. Statistics Canada. (1996). National longitudinal survey of children: Survey instruments for 1994-95 data collection—cycle. Ottawa: Statistics Canada 1.
go back to reference Statistics Canada. (2006). Low income cut-offs for 2005 ad low income measures for 2004. (Catalogue no. 75F0002MIE). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Statistics Canada. (2006). Low income cut-offs for 2005 ad low income measures for 2004. (Catalogue no. 75F0002MIE). Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
go back to reference Statistics Canada. (2010). National longitudinal survey of children and youth, cycle 8, user guide. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Statistics Canada. (2010). National longitudinal survey of children and youth, cycle 8, user guide. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
go back to reference Statistics Canada. (2017). Microdata user guide, national longitudinal survey of children and youth, cycle 6, September 2004 to June 2005. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Statistics Canada. (2017). Microdata user guide, national longitudinal survey of children and youth, cycle 6, September 2004 to June 2005. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. (n.d.).
go back to reference Waldfogel, J. (2001). International policies toward parental leave and child care. The Future of Children, 11, 98–11.CrossRefPubMed Waldfogel, J. (2001). International policies toward parental leave and child care. The Future of Children, 11, 98–11.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Waldfogel, J., Han, W., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2002). The effects of early maternal employment on child cognitive development. Demography, 39, 369–392.CrossRefPubMed Waldfogel, J., Han, W., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2002). The effects of early maternal employment on child cognitive development. Demography, 39, 369–392.CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
The Timing and Intensity of Maternal Employment in Early Childhood: Implications for Canadian Children
Auteurs
Teresa Katherine Lightbody
Deanna Lynn Williamson
Publicatiedatum
14-02-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 5/2017
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0668-x

Andere artikelen Uitgave 5/2017

Journal of Child and Family Studies 5/2017 Naar de uitgave