Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Recent literature on seasonal affective disorder (SAD) has begun to focus on diathesis–stress models, including Young and colleagues’ dual vulnerability hypothesis. The dual vulnerability hypothesis posits that individuals must possess both a biological vulnerability to developing vegetative symptoms and a psychological vulnerability to developing mood symptoms in order to develop SAD episodes. However, few studies have directly tested this model until very recently. Research has demonstrated a temporal relation between mood and vegetative symptoms, with vegetative symptoms having an earlier onset than mood symptoms supporting the idea that separate factors related to the two symptom clusters exist. The current study represents a longitudinal assessment of vegetative and mood symptoms, as well as cognitive factors (i.e., rumination, automatic thoughts) that may represent part of the psychological vulnerability shared by SAD sufferers. Furthermore, the present study represents only the second to assess state levels of cognitive factors that may impact recurrent SAD episode severity. Fifty-one individuals participated in the study across two groups, individuals with a history of SAD, and with no history of depression or SADs. Findings supported the dual vulnerability hypothesis, with an early vegetative symptom onset than mood symptom evident for the individuals with a history of SAD. Participants with a history of SAD also reported more ruminative responses and negative automatic thoughts about the seasons. Findings are generally supportive of Young and colleagues’ dual vulnerability hypothesis and directions for future research are suggested.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., Text Revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. NY: Guilford Press.
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Dahl, K., Avery, D. H., Lewy, A. J., Savage, M. V., Brengelmann, G. L., Larsen, L. H., et al. (1993). Dim light melatonin onset and circadian temperature during a constant routine in hypersomnic winter depression. Acta Psychiatry Scandinavia, 88, 60–66. CrossRef
Dorz, S., Borgherini, G., Conforti, D., Scarso, C., & Magni, G. (2004). Comparison of self-rated and clinician-rated measures of depressive symptoms: A naturalistic study. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 77, 353–361. CrossRef
Enggasser, J. L., & Young, A. M. (2007). Cognitive vulnerability to depression in seasonal affective disorder: Predicting mood and cognitive symptoms in individuals with seasonal vegetative changes. Cognitive Therapy Research, 31, 3–21. CrossRef
First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1996). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders, clinician version (SCID-CV). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.
Glod, C. A., & Baisden, N. (1999). Seasonal affective disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 5, 29–33. CrossRef
Hollon, S., & Kendall, P. (1980). Cognitive self-statements in depression: Development of an Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 3, 383–396. CrossRef
Insightful Industries. (2003). S-Plus 6.2 for Windows.
Lodis, C., Sigmon, S. T., Martinson, A., Craner, J., McGillicuddy, M., & Hale, B. (2012). Is collegiate athletic participation a protective factor in seasonality? Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 6, 113–128.
Lucht, M. J., & Kasper, S. (1999). Gender differences in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 2, 83–89. CrossRef
Lyubomirsky, S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1995). Effects of self-focused rumination on negative thinking and interpersonal problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 179–190. CrossRef
Magnusson, A., & Partonen, T. (2005). The diagnosis, symptomatology, and epidemiology of seasonal affective disorder. CNS Spectrums, 10, 625–634. PubMed
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1990). Sex differences in depression. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2012). Emotion regulation and psychopathology: The role of gender. Annual Review Of Clinical Psychology, 8, 161–187. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032511-143109.
Rohan, K. J. (2009). Coping with the seasons: A cognitive behavioral approach to seasonal affective disorder, therapist guide (treatments that work). NY: Oxford University Press.
Rohan, K. J., Roecklein, K. A., & Haaga, D. A. F. (2009a). Biological and psychological mechanisms of seasonal affective disorder: A review and integration. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 5, 37–47. CrossRef
Rohan, K. J., Roecklein, K. A., Lindsey, K. T., Johnson, L. G., Lippy, R. D., Lacy, T. J., et al. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy, light therapy, & their combination for seasonal affective disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 489–500. PubMedCrossRef
Rohan, K., Sigmon, S., & Dorhofer, D. (2003). Cognitive-behavioral factors in seasonal affective disorder. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 71, 22–30. CrossRef
Sigmon, S. T., Cassel, A. G., Dawson, R. F. S., Schartel, J. G., Owings, L. R., & Thorpe, G. L. (2009). The role of rumination in predicting seasonality. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 27, 176–187.
Sigmon, S. T., et al. (2007). Seasonal reactivity: Attention bias and psychophysiological arousal in seasonal and nonseasonal depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31, 619–638. CrossRef
Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis: modeling change and event occurrence. NY: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Tam, E., Lam, R., & Levitt, A. (1995). Treatment of seasonal affective disorder: A review. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 40, 457–466.
Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 247–259. CrossRef
Whitcomb-Smith, S., Sigmon, S. T., & Kendrew, J. (2001, November). The development of an instrument to measure cognitions about seasonal changes. Presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Philadelphia, PA.
Williams, J. B. W., Link, M. J., Rosenthal, N. E., Amira, L., & Terman, M. (1994). Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD). New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute.
Young, M. A. (1999). Integrating psychological and physiological mechanisms of SAD: The dual vulnerability model. Biological Rhythms Bulletin, 1, 4–6.
Young, M. A., & Azam, O. A. (2003). Ruminative response style and the severity of seasonal affective disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 223–233. CrossRef
Young, M. A., Reardon, A., & Azam, O. (2008). Rumination and vegetative symptoms: A test of the dual vulnerability model of seasonal depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 567–576. CrossRef
- The Temporal Development of Mood, Cognitive, and Vegetative Symptoms in Recurrent SAD Episodes: A Test of the Dual Vulnerability Hypothesis
Sandra T. Sigmon
- Springer US