Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research 4/2016

10-06-2015 | Original Article

The roles of stimulus and response uncertainty in forced-choice performance: an amendment to Hick/Hyman Law

Auteurs: Tim Wifall, Eliot Hazeltine, J. Toby Mordkoff

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 4/2016

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Hick/Hyman Law describes one of the core phenomena in the study of human information processing: mean response time is a linear function of average uncertainty. In the original work of Hick, (1952) and Hyman, (1953), along with many follow-up studies, uncertainty regarding the stimulus and uncertainty regarding the response were confounded such that the relative importance of these two factors remains mostly unknown. The present work first replicates Hick/Hyman Law with a new set of stimuli and then goes on to separately estimate the roles of stimulus and response uncertainty. The results demonstrate that, for a popular type of task—visual stimuli mapped to vocal responses—response uncertainty accounts for a majority of the effect. The results justify a revised expression of Hick/Hyman Law and place strong constraints on theoretical accounts of the law, as well as models of response selection in general.

Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:

BSL Psychologie Totaal

Met BSL Psychologie Totaal blijf je als professional steeds op de hoogte van de nieuwste ontwikkelingen binnen jouw vak. Met het online abonnement heb je toegang tot een groot aantal boeken, protocollen, vaktijdschriften en e-learnings op het gebied van psychologie en psychiatrie. Zo kun je op je gemak en wanneer het jou het beste uitkomt verdiepen in jouw vakgebied.

Literatuur
go back to reference Anderson, J. R., & Reder, L. M. (1999). The fan effect: new results and new theories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 186–197. CrossRef Anderson, J. R., & Reder, L. M. (1999). The fan effect: new results and new theories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 186–197. CrossRef
go back to reference Attneave, F. (1959). Applications of information theory to psychology: a summary of basic concepts, methods, and results. New York: Holt-Dryden. Attneave, F. (1959). Applications of information theory to psychology: a summary of basic concepts, methods, and results. New York: Holt-Dryden.
go back to reference Berlyne, D. E. (1957b). Uncertainty and conflict: a point of contract between information-theory and behavior-theory concepts. Psychological Review, 64, 329–339. CrossRefPubMed Berlyne, D. E. (1957b). Uncertainty and conflict: a point of contract between information-theory and behavior-theory concepts. Psychological Review, 64, 329–339. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bricker, P. D. (1955). The identification of redundant stimulus patterns. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49, 73–81. CrossRefPubMed Bricker, P. D. (1955). The identification of redundant stimulus patterns. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49, 73–81. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cousineau, D. (2005). Confidence intervals in within-subject designs: a simpler solution to Loftus and Massons’s method. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 1, 42–45. Cousineau, D. (2005). Confidence intervals in within-subject designs: a simpler solution to Loftus and Massons’s method. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 1, 42–45.
go back to reference Dassonville, P., Lewis, S. M., Foster, H. E., & Ashe, J. (1999). Choice and stimulus-response compatibility affect duration of response selection. Cognitive Brain Research, 7, 235–240. CrossRefPubMed Dassonville, P., Lewis, S. M., Foster, H. E., & Ashe, J. (1999). Choice and stimulus-response compatibility affect duration of response selection. Cognitive Brain Research, 7, 235–240. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception and Psychophysics, 16, 143–149. CrossRef Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception and Psychophysics, 16, 143–149. CrossRef
go back to reference Fitts, P. M., & Seeger, C. M. (1953). S-R compatibility: spatial characteristics of stimulus and response codes. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 46, 199–210. CrossRefPubMed Fitts, P. M., & Seeger, C. M. (1953). S-R compatibility: spatial characteristics of stimulus and response codes. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 46, 199–210. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Fitts, P. M., & Switzer, G. (1962). Cognitive aspects of information processing: I. The familiarity of S-R sets and subsets. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 321–329. CrossRefPubMed Fitts, P. M., & Switzer, G. (1962). Cognitive aspects of information processing: I. The familiarity of S-R sets and subsets. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 321–329. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hawkins, G., Brown, S. D., Steyvers, M., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2012). Context effects in multi-alternative decision making: empirical data and a Bayesian model. Cognitive Science, 36, 498–516. CrossRefPubMed Hawkins, G., Brown, S. D., Steyvers, M., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2012). Context effects in multi-alternative decision making: empirical data and a Bayesian model. Cognitive Science, 36, 498–516. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hick, W. E. (1952). On the rate of gain of information. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 4, 11–26. CrossRef Hick, W. E. (1952). On the rate of gain of information. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 4, 11–26. CrossRef
go back to reference Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis. Correcting error and bias in research findings. London: Sage Publications. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis. Correcting error and bias in research findings. London: Sage Publications.
go back to reference Hyman, R. (1953). Stimulus information as a determinant of reaction time. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 30, 188–196. CrossRef Hyman, R. (1953). Stimulus information as a determinant of reaction time. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 30, 188–196. CrossRef
go back to reference Jamieson, R. K., & Mewhort, D. J. K. (2009). Applying an exemplar model to the serial reaction-time task: anticipating from experience. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 1757–1783. CrossRefPubMed Jamieson, R. K., & Mewhort, D. J. K. (2009). Applying an exemplar model to the serial reaction-time task: anticipating from experience. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 1757–1783. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Keele, S. W. (1970). Effects of input and output modes on decision time. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 85, 157–164. CrossRef Keele, S. W. (1970). Effects of input and output modes on decision time. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 85, 157–164. CrossRef
go back to reference Kornblum, S. (1969). Sequential determinants of information processing in serial and discrete choice reaction time. Psychological Review, 76, 113–131. CrossRef Kornblum, S. (1969). Sequential determinants of information processing in serial and discrete choice reaction time. Psychological Review, 76, 113–131. CrossRef
go back to reference Kveraga, K., Boucher, L., & Hughes, H. (2002). Saccades operate in violation of Hick’s law. Experimental Brain Research, 146, 307–314. CrossRefPubMed Kveraga, K., Boucher, L., & Hughes, H. (2002). Saccades operate in violation of Hick’s law. Experimental Brain Research, 146, 307–314. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference LaBerge, D., Legrand, R., & Hobbie, R. K. (1969). Functional identification of perceptual and response biases in choice reaction time. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 79, 295–299. CrossRefPubMed LaBerge, D., Legrand, R., & Hobbie, R. K. (1969). Functional identification of perceptual and response biases in choice reaction time. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 79, 295–299. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference LaBerge, D., & Tweedy, J. R. (1964). Presentation probability and choice time. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 477–481. CrossRefPubMed LaBerge, D., & Tweedy, J. R. (1964). Presentation probability and choice time. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 477–481. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lacouture, Y., Li, S.-C., & Marley, A. A. J. (1998). The roles of stimulus and response set size in the identification of categorization of unidimensional stimuli. Australian Journal of Psychology, 50, 165–174. CrossRef Lacouture, Y., Li, S.-C., & Marley, A. A. J. (1998). The roles of stimulus and response set size in the identification of categorization of unidimensional stimuli. Australian Journal of Psychology, 50, 165–174. CrossRef
go back to reference Leonard, J. A. (1959). Tactual choice reactions. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 11, 76–83. CrossRef Leonard, J. A. (1959). Tactual choice reactions. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 11, 76–83. CrossRef
go back to reference Longstreth, L. E. (1988). Hick’s law: its limit is 3 bits. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 26, 8–10. CrossRef Longstreth, L. E. (1988). Hick’s law: its limit is 3 bits. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 26, 8–10. CrossRef
go back to reference Longstreth, L. E., El-Zahhar, N., & Alcorn, M. B. (1985). Exceptions to Hick’s law: explorations with a response duration measure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 417–434. CrossRef Longstreth, L. E., El-Zahhar, N., & Alcorn, M. B. (1985). Exceptions to Hick’s law: explorations with a response duration measure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 417–434. CrossRef
go back to reference Metzker, M., & Dreisbach, G. (2009). Bidirectional priming processes in the Simon task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 1770–1783. PubMed Metzker, M., & Dreisbach, G. (2009). Bidirectional priming processes in the Simon task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 1770–1783. PubMed
go back to reference Morey, R. D. (2008). Confidence intervals from normalized data: a correction to Cousineau (2005). Tutorial in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 4, 61–64. Morey, R. D. (2008). Confidence intervals from normalized data: a correction to Cousineau (2005). Tutorial in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 4, 61–64.
go back to reference Mϋsseler, J., & Hommel, B. (1997). Blindness to response-compatible stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23, 861–872. Mϋsseler, J., & Hommel, B. (1997). Blindness to response-compatible stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23, 861–872.
go back to reference Pashler, H. (1984). Processing stages in overlapping tasks: evidence for a central bottleneck. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 10, 358–377. PubMed Pashler, H. (1984). Processing stages in overlapping tasks: evidence for a central bottleneck. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 10, 358–377. PubMed
go back to reference Pashler, H., & Baylis, G. (1991). Procedural learning: 2. Intertrial repetition effects in speeded-choice tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 33–48. CrossRef Pashler, H., & Baylis, G. (1991). Procedural learning: 2. Intertrial repetition effects in speeded-choice tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 33–48. CrossRef
go back to reference Pollack, I. (1959). Message uncertainty and message reception. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 31, 1500–1508. CrossRef Pollack, I. (1959). Message uncertainty and message reception. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 31, 1500–1508. CrossRef
go back to reference Rabbit, P. M. A. (1968). Repetition effects and signal classification strategies is serial choice-response tasks. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 20, 232–240. CrossRef Rabbit, P. M. A. (1968). Repetition effects and signal classification strategies is serial choice-response tasks. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 20, 232–240. CrossRef
go back to reference Rabbitt, P. M. A. (1959). Effects of independent variations in stimulus and response probability. Nature, 183, 1212. CrossRefPubMed Rabbitt, P. M. A. (1959). Effects of independent variations in stimulus and response probability. Nature, 183, 1212. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rabbitt, P. M. A. (1966). Errors and error corrections in choice-response tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 264–272. CrossRefPubMed Rabbitt, P. M. A. (1966). Errors and error corrections in choice-response tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 264–272. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Shannon, C. E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 27(379–423), 623–656. CrossRef Shannon, C. E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 27(379–423), 623–656. CrossRef
go back to reference Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press. Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.
go back to reference Simon, J. R. (1969). Reactions towards the source of stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 174–176. CrossRefPubMed Simon, J. R. (1969). Reactions towards the source of stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 174–176. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Smith, E. E. (1968a). Choice reaction time: an analysis of the major theoretical positions. Psychological Bulletin, 69, 77–110. CrossRefPubMed Smith, E. E. (1968a). Choice reaction time: an analysis of the major theoretical positions. Psychological Bulletin, 69, 77–110. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Smith, M. C. (1968b). Repetition effect and short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 435–439. CrossRefPubMed Smith, M. C. (1968b). Repetition effect and short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 435–439. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643–662. CrossRef Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643–662. CrossRef
go back to reference Teichner, W. H., & Krebs, M. J. (1974). Laws of visual choice reaction time. Psychological Review, 81, 75–98. CrossRefPubMed Teichner, W. H., & Krebs, M. J. (1974). Laws of visual choice reaction time. Psychological Review, 81, 75–98. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Usher, M., & McClelland, J. L. (2001). The time course of perceptual choice: the leaky, competing accumulator model. Psychological Review, 108, 550–592. CrossRefPubMed Usher, M., & McClelland, J. L. (2001). The time course of perceptual choice: the leaky, competing accumulator model. Psychological Review, 108, 550–592. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Usher, M., Olami, Z., & McClelland, J. L. (2002). Hick’s law in a stochastic race model with speed-accuracy tradeoff. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 46, 704–715. CrossRef Usher, M., Olami, Z., & McClelland, J. L. (2002). Hick’s law in a stochastic race model with speed-accuracy tradeoff. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 46, 704–715. CrossRef
go back to reference Wang, H., & Proctor, R. W. (1996). Stimulus-response compatibility as a function of stimulus code and response modality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 22, 1201–1217. Wang, H., & Proctor, R. W. (1996). Stimulus-response compatibility as a function of stimulus code and response modality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 22, 1201–1217.
go back to reference Welford, A. (1968). The fundamentals of skill. London: Methuen. Welford, A. (1968). The fundamentals of skill. London: Methuen.
go back to reference Wifall, T., McMurray, B., & Hazeltine, E. (2014). Perceptual similarity affects the learning curve (but not necessarily learning). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 312–331. CrossRef Wifall, T., McMurray, B., & Hazeltine, E. (2014). Perceptual similarity affects the learning curve (but not necessarily learning). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 312–331. CrossRef
go back to reference Wright, C. E., Marino, V. M., Belovsky, S. A., & Chubb, C. (2007). Visually-guided, aimed movements can be unaffected by stimulus—response uncertainty. Experimental Brain Research, 179, 475–496. CrossRefPubMed Wright, C. E., Marino, V. M., Belovsky, S. A., & Chubb, C. (2007). Visually-guided, aimed movements can be unaffected by stimulus—response uncertainty. Experimental Brain Research, 179, 475–496. CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
The roles of stimulus and response uncertainty in forced-choice performance: an amendment to Hick/Hyman Law
Auteurs
Tim Wifall
Eliot Hazeltine
J. Toby Mordkoff
Publicatiedatum
10-06-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 4/2016
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-015-0675-8