Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
We aimed to bring a developmental perspective to metacognitive theory. The metacognitive model (MCM) was originally developed for adults. However, an increasing number of studies demonstrate the MCM is relevant to child anxiety. Therefore, it is important to understand the origins of anxiety-specific metacognitions. Given the role experiences of controlling parenting play in maintaining and perhaps forming anxious cognitions or a cognitive vulnerability we focused on maternal behavioral and psychological control. Using a cross-sectional design, Danish school children (9–17 years old; N = 1062) rated their levels of anxiety and anxiety-specific metacognitions, and their mothers' controlling behavior. Child-perceived maternal psychological control was positively correlated with each anxiety specific metacognition (positive and negative worry beliefs, cognitive confidence, need to control, and cognitive self-consciousness). Child-perceived autonomy-granting was negatively correlated with all metacognitions except cognitive self-consciousness. Child perceived maternal psychological control was indirectly associated with anxiety via total metacognitions. Child-perceived autonomy-granting, but not psychological control, was directly related to anxiety. Given the differential findings for psychological control and autonomy-granting, we suggest that specific types of parenting behavior may be related to specific elements of (meta-) cognitive vulnerability. Our findings are theoretically important because they propose maternal psychological control is an environmental factor that may play a role in the development of a metacognitive vulnerability related to anxiety. A potential clinical implication of our findings is that metacognitive therapy for children should include a parental component.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV. 4th edition Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Bögels, S. M., & van Melick, M. (2004). The relationship between child-report, parent self-report, and partner report of perceived parental rearing behaviors and anxiety in children and parents. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1583–1596. CrossRef
Cheung, M. W. (2009). Comparison of methods for constructing confidence intervals of standardized indirect effects. Behavioral Research Methods, 41, 425–438. CrossRef
Creswell, C., Cooper, P., & Murray, L. (2010). Intergenerational transmission of anxious information processing biases. In J. A. Hadwin, A. P. Field (Eds.), Information processing biases and anxiety (pp. 279–295). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. CrossRef
Davis, R. N., & Valentiner, D. P. (2000). Does meta-cognitive theory enhance our understanding of pathological worry and anxiety? Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 513–526. CrossRef
Ellis, D. M., & Hudson, J. L. (2011). Test of the metacognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder in anxiety-disordered adolescents. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 2, 28–43. CrossRef
Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York: Guilford Press.
Esbjørn, B. H., Lønfeldt, N. N., Nielsen, S. K., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., Sømhovd, M. J., & Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2014). Meta-worry, worry, and anxiety in children and adolescents: Relationships and interactions. Journal Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44, 145–156. CrossRef
Esbjørn, B. H., Sømhovd, M. J., Holm, J. M., Lønfeldt, N. N., Bender, P. K., Nielsen, S. K., & Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L. (2013). A structural assessment of the 30-item metacognitions questionnaire for children and its relations to anxiety symptoms. Psychological Assessment, 25, 1211–1219. CrossRefPubMed
Field, A. P., Cartwright-Hatton, S., Reynolds, S., & Creswell, C. (2008). Future directions for child anxiety theory and treatment. Cognition & Emotion, 22, 385–394. CrossRef
Irak, M. (2012). Standardization of turkish form of metacognition questionnaire for children and adolescents: The relationships with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Turk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 23, 46–52. PubMed
Jaccard, J., & Turrisi, R. (2003). Interaction effects in multiple regression. 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc. CrossRef
Klein, R. G. (1991). Parent–child agreement in clinical assessment of anxiety and other psychopathology: A review. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 5, 187–198. CrossRef
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. 3rd edn. New York: Guilford Press.
MacKinnon, D. P. (2012). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., Van Brakel, A., & Mayer, B. (1999). The revised version of the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED-R): Further evidence for its reliability and validity. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 12, 411–425. CrossRef
Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., Schmidt, H., & Mayer, B. (1998). The revised version of the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED-R): Factor structure in normal children. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 99–112. CrossRef
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). MPLUS (Version 7). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Nanda, M. M., Kotchick, B. A., & Grover, R. L. (2011). Parental psychological control and childhood anxiety: The mediating role of perceived lack of control. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 637–645. CrossRef
Niditch, L. A., & Varela, R. E. (2011). Perceptions of parenting, emotional self-efficacy, and anxiety in youth: Test of a mediational model. Child & Youth Care Forum, 41, 21–35. CrossRef
Schleider, J. L., Vélez, C. E., Krause, E. D., & Gillham, J. (2014). Perceived psychological control and anxiety in early adolescents: The mediating role of attributional style. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38, 71–81. CrossRef
Schludermann, E., & Schludermann, S. (1970). Replicability of factors in children’s report of parent behavior (CRPBI). The Journal of Psychology, 76, 239–249. CrossRef
Simons, M. (2012). Anders denken—Metakognitive Therapie für Kinder und Jugendliche mit Zwangsstörung: Ein Behandlungsplan. Verhaltenstherapie, 22, 259–267. CrossRef
Siqueland, L., Kendall, P. C., & Steinberg, L. (1996). Anxiety in children: Perceived family environments and observed family interaction. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 225–237. CrossRef
Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2010). A theoretical upgrade of the concept of parental psychological control: Proposing new insights on the basis of self-determination theory. Developmental Review, 30, 74–99. CrossRef
Wells, A. (1995). Meta-Cognition and worry: A cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 301–320. CrossRef
Wells, A. (2002). Emotional disorders and metacognition: innovative cognitive therapy. Chichester: Wiley. CrossRef
Wells, A. (2009). Metacognitive therapy for anxiety and depression. New York: Guilford Press.
Wells, A., & Matthews, G. (2006). Cognitive vulnerability to anxiety disorders: An integration. In L. B. Alloy & J. H. Riskind (Eds.), Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders (pp. 303–325). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Wilson, C., & Hughes, C. (2011). Worry, beliefs about worry and problem solving in young children. Behavioral Cognitive Psychotherapy, 39, 507–521. CrossRef
Zarra-Nezhad, M., Kiuru, N., Aunola, K., Zarra-Nezhad, M., Ahonen, T., Poikkeus, A. M., Lerkkanen, M. K., & Nurmi, J. E. (2014). Social withdrawal in children moderates the association between parenting styles and the children’s own socioemotional development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 1260–1269. CrossRefPubMed
- The Role of Metacognitions in the Association between Children’s Perceptions of Maternal Control and Anxiety
Nicole N. Lønfeldt
Carla E. Marin
Wendy K. Silverman
Marie Louise Reinholdt-Dunne
Barbara H. Esbjørn
- Springer US