Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 9/2008

01-10-2008 | Original Paper

The Role of Face Familiarity in Eye Tracking of Faces by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Auteurs: Lindsey Sterling, Geraldine Dawson, Sara Webb, Michael Murias, Jeffrey Munson, Heracles Panagiotides, Elizabeth Aylward

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 9/2008

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

It has been shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate normal activation in the fusiform gyrus when viewing familiar, but not unfamiliar faces. The current study utilized eye tracking to investigate patterns of attention underlying familiar versus unfamiliar face processing in ASD. Eye movements of 18 typically developing participants and 17 individuals with ASD were recorded while passively viewing three face categories: unfamiliar non-repeating faces, a repeating highly familiar face, and a repeating previously unfamiliar face. Results suggest that individuals with ASD do not exhibit more normative gaze patterns when viewing familiar faces. A second task assessed facial recognition accuracy and response time for familiar and novel faces. The groups did not differ on accuracy or reaction times.
Literatuur
go back to reference Adrien, J. L., Lenoir, P., Martineau, J., Perrot, A., Hameury, L., Larmande, C. et al. (1993). Blind ratings of early symptoms of autism based upon family home movies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 617–626. PubMedCrossRef Adrien, J. L., Lenoir, P., Martineau, J., Perrot, A., Hameury, L., Larmande, C. et al. (1993). Blind ratings of early symptoms of autism based upon family home movies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 617–626. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Althoff, R. R., & Cohen, N. J. (1999). Eye-movement-based memory effect: A reprocessing effect in face perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 25(4), 997–1010. CrossRef Althoff, R. R., & Cohen, N. J. (1999). Eye-movement-based memory effect: A reprocessing effect in face perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 25(4), 997–1010. CrossRef
go back to reference American Psychological Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC. American Psychological Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC.
go back to reference Aylward, E., Bernier, R., Field, K., Grimme, A., & Dawson, G. (2004). Normal activation of fusiform gyrus in adolescents and adults with autism during viewing of familiar, but not unfamiliar, faces. Paper presented at the STAART/CPEA (Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment/Collaborative Programs for Excellence in Autism) NIH network meeting, May 17–20. Bethesda, MD. Aylward, E., Bernier, R., Field, K., Grimme, A., & Dawson, G. (2004). Normal activation of fusiform gyrus in adolescents and adults with autism during viewing of familiar, but not unfamiliar, faces. Paper presented at the STAART/CPEA (Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment/Collaborative Programs for Excellence in Autism) NIH network meeting, May 17–20. Bethesda, MD.
go back to reference Boraston, Z., & Blakemore, S. J. (2007). The application of eye-tracking technology in the study of autism. The Journal of Physiology, 581, 893–898. PubMedCrossRef Boraston, Z., & Blakemore, S. J. (2007). The application of eye-tracking technology in the study of autism. The Journal of Physiology, 581, 893–898. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Critchley, H. D., Daly, E. M., Bullmore, E. T., Williams, S. C., Van Amelsvoort, T., Robertson, D. M. et al. (2000). The functional neuroanatomy of social behaviour: Changes in cerebral blood flow when people with autistic disorder process facial expressions. Brain, 123, 2203–2212. PubMedCrossRef Critchley, H. D., Daly, E. M., Bullmore, E. T., Williams, S. C., Van Amelsvoort, T., Robertson, D. M. et al. (2000). The functional neuroanatomy of social behaviour: Changes in cerebral blood flow when people with autistic disorder process facial expressions. Brain, 123, 2203–2212. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dalton, K. M., Nacewicz, B. M., Johnstone, T., Schaefer, H. S., Gernsbacher, M. A., Goldsmith, H. H., Alexander, A. L., & Davidson, R. J. (2005). Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nature Neuroscience, 8(4), 519–526. PubMed Dalton, K. M., Nacewicz, B. M., Johnstone, T., Schaefer, H. S., Gernsbacher, M. A., Goldsmith, H. H., Alexander, A. L., & Davidson, R. J. (2005). Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nature Neuroscience, 8(4), 519–526. PubMed
go back to reference Damasio, A. R., Tranel, D., & Damasio, H. (1990). Face agnosia and the neural substrates of memory. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 13, 89–109. PubMedCrossRef Damasio, A. R., Tranel, D., & Damasio, H. (1990). Face agnosia and the neural substrates of memory. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 13, 89–109. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Davies, S., Bishop, D., Manstead, A. S., & Tantam, D. (1994). Face perception in children with autism and Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 1033–1057. PubMedCrossRef Davies, S., Bishop, D., Manstead, A. S., & Tantam, D. (1994). Face perception in children with autism and Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 1033–1057. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dawson, G., Meltzoff, A. N., Osterling, J., Rinaldi, J., & Brown, E. (1998). Children with autism fail to orient to naturally occurring social stimuli. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 479–485. PubMedCrossRef Dawson, G., Meltzoff, A. N., Osterling, J., Rinaldi, J., & Brown, E. (1998). Children with autism fail to orient to naturally occurring social stimuli. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 479–485. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dawson, G., Webb, S. J., & McPartland, J. (2005). Understanding the nature of face processing impairment in autism: Insights from behavioral and electrophysiological studies. Developmental Neuropsychology, 27(3), 403–424. PubMedCrossRef Dawson, G., Webb, S. J., & McPartland, J. (2005). Understanding the nature of face processing impairment in autism: Insights from behavioral and electrophysiological studies. Developmental Neuropsychology, 27(3), 403–424. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dawson, G., Webb, S. J., Wijsman, E., Schellenberg, G., Estes, E., Munson, J. et al. (2005). Neurocognitive and electrophysiological evidence of altered face processing in parents of children with autism: Implications for a model of abnormal development of social brain circuitry in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 679–697. PubMedCrossRef Dawson, G., Webb, S. J., Wijsman, E., Schellenberg, G., Estes, E., Munson, J. et al. (2005). Neurocognitive and electrophysiological evidence of altered face processing in parents of children with autism: Implications for a model of abnormal development of social brain circuitry in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 679–697. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Downing, P. E., Chan, A. W., Peelen, M. V., Dodds, C. M., & Kanwisher, N. (2006). Domain specificity in the visual cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 16(10), 1453–1461. PubMedCrossRef Downing, P. E., Chan, A. W., Peelen, M. V., Dodds, C. M., & Kanwisher, N. (2006). Domain specificity in the visual cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 16(10), 1453–1461. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Faja, S., Aylward, E., Bernier, R., & Dawson, G. (2008). Becoming a face expert: A computerized face-training program for high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33, 1–24. PubMed Faja, S., Aylward, E., Bernier, R., & Dawson, G. (2008). Becoming a face expert: A computerized face-training program for high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33, 1–24. PubMed
go back to reference Gauthier, I., Skudlarski, P., Gore, J. C., & Anderson, A. W. (2000). Expertise for cars and birds recruits brain areas involved in face recognition. Nature Neuroscience, 3(2), 191–197. PubMedCrossRef Gauthier, I., Skudlarski, P., Gore, J. C., & Anderson, A. W. (2000). Expertise for cars and birds recruits brain areas involved in face recognition. Nature Neuroscience, 3(2), 191–197. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gauthier, I., & Tarr, M. J. (2002). Unraveling mechanisms for expert object recognition: Bridging brain activity and behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28(2), 431–446. PubMedCrossRef Gauthier, I., & Tarr, M. J. (2002). Unraveling mechanisms for expert object recognition: Bridging brain activity and behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28(2), 431–446. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gauthier, I., Tarr, M. J., Anderson, A.W, Skudanski, P., & Gore, J. C. (1999). Activation of the middle fusiform ‘face area’ increases with expertise in recognizing novel objects. Nature Neuroscience, 2(6), 568–573. PubMedCrossRef Gauthier, I., Tarr, M. J., Anderson, A.W, Skudanski, P., & Gore, J. C. (1999). Activation of the middle fusiform ‘face area’ increases with expertise in recognizing novel objects. Nature Neuroscience, 2(6), 568–573. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Grelotti, D. J., Gauthier, I., & Schultz, R. T. (2002). Social interest and the development of cortical face specialization: What autism teaches us about face processing. Developmental Psychobiology, 40, 213–225. PubMedCrossRef Grelotti, D. J., Gauthier, I., & Schultz, R. T. (2002). Social interest and the development of cortical face specialization: What autism teaches us about face processing. Developmental Psychobiology, 40, 213–225. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Haith, M. N., Bergman, T., & Moore, M. J. (1977). Eye contact and face scanning in early infancy. Science, 198(4319), 853–855. PubMedCrossRef Haith, M. N., Bergman, T., & Moore, M. J. (1977). Eye contact and face scanning in early infancy. Science, 198(4319), 853–855. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hall, G. B., Szechtman, H., & Nahmias, C. (2003). Enhanced salience and emotion recognition in Autism: A PET study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1439–1441. PubMedCrossRef Hall, G. B., Szechtman, H., & Nahmias, C. (2003). Enhanced salience and emotion recognition in Autism: A PET study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1439–1441. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Haxby, J. V., Horwitz, B., Ungerleider, L. G., Maisog, J. M., Pietrini, P., & Grady C. L. (1994). The functional organization of human extrastriate cortex: A PET-rCBF study of selective attention to faces and locations. The Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 6336–6353. PubMed Haxby, J. V., Horwitz, B., Ungerleider, L. G., Maisog, J. M., Pietrini, P., & Grady C. L. (1994). The functional organization of human extrastriate cortex: A PET-rCBF study of selective attention to faces and locations. The Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 6336–6353. PubMed
go back to reference Hubl, D., Bolte, S., Feineis-Matthews, S., Lanfermann, H., Federspiel, A., Strik, W. et al. (2003). Functional imbalance of visual pathways indicates alternative face processing strategies in autism. Neurology, 61, 1232–1237. PubMed Hubl, D., Bolte, S., Feineis-Matthews, S., Lanfermann, H., Federspiel, A., Strik, W. et al. (2003). Functional imbalance of visual pathways indicates alternative face processing strategies in autism. Neurology, 61, 1232–1237. PubMed
go back to reference Janik, S. W., Wellens, A. R., Goldberg, M. L., & Dell’osso, L. F. (1978). Eyes as the center of focus in the visual examination of human faces. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 47, 857–858. PubMed Janik, S. W., Wellens, A. R., Goldberg, M. L., & Dell’osso, L. F. (1978). Eyes as the center of focus in the visual examination of human faces. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 47, 857–858. PubMed
go back to reference Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbance of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbance of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.
go back to reference Kanwisher, N. (2000). Domain specificity in face perception. Nature Neuroscience, 3(8), 759–763. PubMedCrossRef Kanwisher, N. (2000). Domain specificity in face perception. Nature Neuroscience, 3(8), 759–763. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kanwisher, N., McDermott, J., & Chun, M. M. (1997). The fusiform face area: A module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. The Journal of Neuroscience, 17(11), 4302–4311. PubMed Kanwisher, N., McDermott, J., & Chun, M. M. (1997). The fusiform face area: A module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. The Journal of Neuroscience, 17(11), 4302–4311. PubMed
go back to reference Kanwisher, N., & Yovel, G. (2006). The fusiform face area: A cortical region specialized for the perception of faces. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 29, 2109–2128. CrossRef Kanwisher, N., & Yovel, G. (2006). The fusiform face area: A cortical region specialized for the perception of faces. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 29, 2109–2128. CrossRef
go back to reference Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., Volkmar, F., & Cohen, D. (2002). Visual fixation patterns during viewing of naturalistic social situations as predictors of social competence in individuals with autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(9), 809–816. PubMedCrossRef Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., Volkmar, F., & Cohen, D. (2002). Visual fixation patterns during viewing of naturalistic social situations as predictors of social competence in individuals with autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(9), 809–816. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Klin, A., Sparrow, S. S., de Bildt, A., Cicchetti, D. V., Cohen, D. J., & Volkmar, F. R. (1999). A normed study of face recognition in autism and related disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29(6), 499–508. PubMedCrossRef Klin, A., Sparrow, S. S., de Bildt, A., Cicchetti, D. V., Cohen, D. J., & Volkmar, F. R. (1999). A normed study of face recognition in autism and related disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29(6), 499–508. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., & Risi, S. (2000). Autism diagnostic observation schedule manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., & Risi, S. (2000). Autism diagnostic observation schedule manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M., & LeCouteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685. PubMedCrossRef Lord, C., Rutter, M., & LeCouteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Marcus, D. J., & Nelson. C. A. (2001). Neural bases and development of face recognition in autism. CNS Spectrums, 6(1), 36–59. PubMed Marcus, D. J., & Nelson. C. A. (2001). Neural bases and development of face recognition in autism. CNS Spectrums, 6(1), 36–59. PubMed
go back to reference Merin, N., Young, G. S., Ozonoff, S., & Rogers, S. J. (2007). Visual fixation patterns during reciprocal social interaction distinguish a subgroup of 6-month-old infants at-risk for autism from comparison infants. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(1), 108–121. PubMedCrossRef Merin, N., Young, G. S., Ozonoff, S., & Rogers, S. J. (2007). Visual fixation patterns during reciprocal social interaction distinguish a subgroup of 6-month-old infants at-risk for autism from comparison infants. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(1), 108–121. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nelson, C. A. (2001). The development and neural bases of face recognition. Infant and Child Development, 10, 3–18. CrossRef Nelson, C. A. (2001). The development and neural bases of face recognition. Infant and Child Development, 10, 3–18. CrossRef
go back to reference Neumann, D., Spezio, M. L., Piven, J., & Adolphs, R. (2006). Looking you in the mouth: Abnormal gaze in autism resulting from impaired top-down modulation of visual attention. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1(3), 194–202. CrossRefPubMed Neumann, D., Spezio, M. L., Piven, J., & Adolphs, R. (2006). Looking you in the mouth: Abnormal gaze in autism resulting from impaired top-down modulation of visual attention. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1(3), 194–202. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Osterling, J., & Dawson, G. (1994). Early recognition of children with autism: A study of first birthday home videotapes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 247–257. PubMedCrossRef Osterling, J., & Dawson, G. (1994). Early recognition of children with autism: A study of first birthday home videotapes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 247–257. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pelphrey, K. A., Sasson, N. J., Reznick, J. S., Paul, G., Goldman, B., & Piven, J. (2002). Visual scanning of faces in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(4), 249–261. PubMedCrossRef Pelphrey, K. A., Sasson, N. J., Reznick, J. S., Paul, G., Goldman, B., & Piven, J. (2002). Visual scanning of faces in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(4), 249–261. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pierce, K., Haist, F., Sedaghat, F., & Courchesne, E. (2004). The brain response to personally familiar faces in autism: Findings of fusiform activity and beyond. Brain, 127(12), 2703–2716. PubMedCrossRef Pierce, K., Haist, F., Sedaghat, F., & Courchesne, E. (2004). The brain response to personally familiar faces in autism: Findings of fusiform activity and beyond. Brain, 127(12), 2703–2716. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pierce, K., Muller, R. A., Abmrose, G., Allen, G, & Courchesne, E. (2001). Face processing occurs outside the fusiform ‘face area’ in autism: Evidence from functional MRI. Brain, 124, 2059–2073. PubMedCrossRef Pierce, K., Muller, R. A., Abmrose, G., Allen, G, & Courchesne, E. (2001). Face processing occurs outside the fusiform ‘face area’ in autism: Evidence from functional MRI. Brain, 124, 2059–2073. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Piggot, J., Kwon, H., Mobbs, D., Blasey, C., Lotspeich, L., Menon, V. et al. (2004). Emotional attribution in high-functioning individuals with autistic spectrum disorder: A functional imaging study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 473–480. PubMedCrossRef Piggot, J., Kwon, H., Mobbs, D., Blasey, C., Lotspeich, L., Menon, V. et al. (2004). Emotional attribution in high-functioning individuals with autistic spectrum disorder: A functional imaging study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 473–480. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Puce, A., Allison, T., Asgari, M., Gore, J. C., & McCarthy, G. (1996). Differential sensitivity of human visual cortex to faces, letterstrings and textures: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. The Journal of Neuroscience, 16(16), 5205–5215. PubMed Puce, A., Allison, T., Asgari, M., Gore, J. C., & McCarthy, G. (1996). Differential sensitivity of human visual cortex to faces, letterstrings and textures: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. The Journal of Neuroscience, 16(16), 5205–5215. PubMed
go back to reference Puce, A., Allison, T., Gore, J. C., & McCarthy, G. (1995). Face-sensitive regions in human extrastriate cortex studied by functional MRI. Journal of Neurophysiology, 74, 1192–1199. PubMed Puce, A., Allison, T., Gore, J. C., & McCarthy, G. (1995). Face-sensitive regions in human extrastriate cortex studied by functional MRI. Journal of Neurophysiology, 74, 1192–1199. PubMed
go back to reference Rhodes, G., Byatt, G., Michie, P. T., & Puce, A. (2004). Is the fusiform face area specialized for faces, individuation, or expert individuation? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(2), 189–203. PubMedCrossRef Rhodes, G., Byatt, G., Michie, P. T., & Puce, A. (2004). Is the fusiform face area specialized for faces, individuation, or expert individuation? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(2), 189–203. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rossion, B., Schiltz, C., & Crommelinck, M. (2003). The functionally defined right occipital and fusiform “face areas” discriminate novel from visually familiar faces. Neuroimage, 19, 877–883. PubMedCrossRef Rossion, B., Schiltz, C., & Crommelinck, M. (2003). The functionally defined right occipital and fusiform “face areas” discriminate novel from visually familiar faces. Neuroimage, 19, 877–883. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Schultz, R. T., Gauthier, I., Klin, A., Fulbright, R. K., Anderson, A. W., Volkmar, F. et al. (2000). Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 331–340. PubMedCrossRef Schultz, R. T., Gauthier, I., Klin, A., Fulbright, R. K., Anderson, A. W., Volkmar, F. et al. (2000). Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 331–340. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Speer, L. L., Cook, A. E., McMahon, W. M., & Clark, E. (2007). Face processing in children with autism; effects of stimulus contents and type. Autism, 11, 265–277. PubMedCrossRef Speer, L. L., Cook, A. E., McMahon, W. M., & Clark, E. (2007). Face processing in children with autism; effects of stimulus contents and type. Autism, 11, 265–277. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Spezio, M. L., Adolphs, R., Hurley, R. S. E., & Piven, J. (2007a). Abnormal use of facial information in high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 929–939. PubMedCrossRef Spezio, M. L., Adolphs, R., Hurley, R. S. E., & Piven, J. (2007a). Abnormal use of facial information in high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 929–939. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Spezio, M. L., Adolphs, R., Hurley, R. S. E., & Piven, J. (2007b). Analysis of face gaze in autism using “Bubbles”. Neuropsychologia, 47, 144–151. CrossRef Spezio, M. L., Adolphs, R., Hurley, R. S. E., & Piven, J. (2007b). Analysis of face gaze in autism using “Bubbles”. Neuropsychologia, 47, 144–151. CrossRef
go back to reference Tantam, D., Holmes, D., & Cordess, C. (1993). Nonverbal expression in autism of Asperger type. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23, 111–133. PubMedCrossRef Tantam, D., Holmes, D., & Cordess, C. (1993). Nonverbal expression in autism of Asperger type. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23, 111–133. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Trepagnier, C., Sebrechts, M. M., & Peterson, R. (2002). Atypical face gaze in autism. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 5(3), 213–217. PubMedCrossRef Trepagnier, C., Sebrechts, M. M., & Peterson, R. (2002). Atypical face gaze in autism. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 5(3), 213–217. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference van der Geest, J. N., Kemner, C., Verbaten, M. N., & van Engeland, H. (2002). Gaze behavior of children with pervasive developmental disorder toward human faces: A fixation time study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(5), 669–678. PubMedCrossRef van der Geest, J. N., Kemner, C., Verbaten, M. N., & van Engeland, H. (2002). Gaze behavior of children with pervasive developmental disorder toward human faces: A fixation time study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(5), 669–678. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Vuilleumier, P., Armony, J. L., Driver, J., & Dolan, R. J. (2001). Effects of attention and emotion on face processing in the human brain: An event-related fMRI study. Neuron, 30(3), 829–841. PubMedCrossRef Vuilleumier, P., Armony, J. L., Driver, J., & Dolan, R. J. (2001). Effects of attention and emotion on face processing in the human brain: An event-related fMRI study. Neuron, 30(3), 829–841. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Walker-Smith, G. J., Gale, A. G., & Findlay, J. M. (1977). Eye movement strategies involved in face perception. Perception, 6(3), 313–326. PubMedCrossRef Walker-Smith, G. J., Gale, A. G., & Findlay, J. M. (1977). Eye movement strategies involved in face perception. Perception, 6(3), 313–326. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wang, A. T., Dapretto, M., Hariri, A. R., Sigman, M., & Bookheimer, S. Y. (2004). Neural correlates of facial affect processing in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 481–490. CrossRef Wang, A. T., Dapretto, M., Hariri, A. R., Sigman, M., & Bookheimer, S. Y. (2004). Neural correlates of facial affect processing in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 481–490. CrossRef
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (1997a). Wechsler adult intelligence scale (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D. (1997a). Wechsler adult intelligence scale (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (1997b). Wechsler memory scale (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D. (1997b). Wechsler memory scale (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Whiteley, A. M., & Warrington, E. K. (1977). Prosopagnosia: A clinical, psychological, and anatomical study of three patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 40, 395–403. PubMed Whiteley, A. M., & Warrington, E. K. (1977). Prosopagnosia: A clinical, psychological, and anatomical study of three patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 40, 395–403. PubMed
go back to reference Wojciulik, E., Kanwishwer, N., & Driver, J. (1998). Covert visual attention modulates face-specific activity in the human fusiform gyrus: fMRI study. Journal of Neurophysiology, 79(3), 1574–1578. PubMed Wojciulik, E., Kanwishwer, N., & Driver, J. (1998). Covert visual attention modulates face-specific activity in the human fusiform gyrus: fMRI study. Journal of Neurophysiology, 79(3), 1574–1578. PubMed
go back to reference Xu, Y. (2005). Revisiting the role of the fusiform face area in visual expertise. Cerebral Cortex, 15(8), 1234–1242. PubMedCrossRef Xu, Y. (2005). Revisiting the role of the fusiform face area in visual expertise. Cerebral Cortex, 15(8), 1234–1242. PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
The Role of Face Familiarity in Eye Tracking of Faces by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Auteurs
Lindsey Sterling
Geraldine Dawson
Sara Webb
Michael Murias
Jeffrey Munson
Heracles Panagiotides
Elizabeth Aylward
Publicatiedatum
01-10-2008
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 9/2008
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-008-0550-1