Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 8/2016

05-04-2016 | Original Paper

The Role of BIS Sensitivity in the Relationship Between Family Enmeshment and Child Anxiety

Auteurs: Marsha Rowsell, Susan Doyle, Sarah E. Francis

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 8/2016

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Previous work has demonstrated that three overarching vulnerabilities–genetic, environmental, and temperamental–contribute to the development of child anxiety. The purpose of our study was to assess: (a) the relationship between an environmental vulnerability, family enmeshment, and child anxiety; (b) whether parental anxiety accounts for this relationship; and (c) whether this relationship is mediated by levels of child Behavioral Inhibition System sensitivity, a highly persistent temperamental variable demonstrating positive associations with child anxiety. Our study included 38 Canadian parent–child dyads from an urban area, of which 33 children were Caucasian and 18 were girls. Children were aged 9 or 11 years (M = 10.21, SD = 1.07). Children completed measures of anxiety and sensitivity towards threat and parents completed measures of family enmeshment. The results supported a significant positive relationship between family enmeshment and child anxiety; parental anxiety did not account for this relationship; and the relationship was partially mediated by Behavioral Inhibition System sensitivity. Specifically, when the effect of Behavioral Inhibition System sensitivity was controlled for, the association between family enmeshment and child anxiety became non-significant. The results suggest that family enmeshment is associated with levels of child anxiety largely through the function of children’s sensitivity to threat. Enmeshed families may increase children’s susceptibility to anxiety through their effect on child temperament, specifically sensitivity to threat.
Literatuur
go back to reference Baiocco, R., Cacioppo, M., Laghi, F., & Tafà, M. (2013). Factorial and construct validity of FACES IV among Italian adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22, 962–970. doi:10.1007/s10826-012-9658-1.CrossRef Baiocco, R., Cacioppo, M., Laghi, F., & Tafà, M. (2013). Factorial and construct validity of FACES IV among Italian adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22, 962–970. doi:10.​1007/​s10826-012-9658-1.CrossRef
go back to reference Barber, B. K., & Buehler, C. (1996). Family cohesion and enmeshment: Different constructs, different effects. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 433–441. doi:10.2307/353507.CrossRef Barber, B. K., & Buehler, C. (1996). Family cohesion and enmeshment: Different constructs, different effects. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 433–441. doi:10.​2307/​353507.CrossRef
go back to reference Barlow, D. H. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.). New York: The Gulliford Press. Barlow, D. H. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.). New York: The Gulliford Press.
go back to reference Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173.CrossRefPubMed Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. doi:10.​1037/​0022-3514.​51.​6.​1173.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bastiaansen, D., Koot, H. M., Ferdinand, R. F., & Verhulst, F. C. (2004). Quality of life in children with psychiatric disorders: Self-, parent, and clinician report. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 221–230. doi:10.1097/00004583-200402000-00019.CrossRefPubMed Bastiaansen, D., Koot, H. M., Ferdinand, R. F., & Verhulst, F. C. (2004). Quality of life in children with psychiatric disorders: Self-, parent, and clinician report. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 221–230. doi:10.​1097/​00004583-200402000-00019.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bayer, J. K., Hastings, P. D., Sanson, A. V., Ukoumunne, O. C., & Rubin, K. H. (2010). Predicting mid-childhood interalising symptoms: Longitudinal community study. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 12, 5–17. doi:10.1080/14623730.2010.9721802.CrossRef Bayer, J. K., Hastings, P. D., Sanson, A. V., Ukoumunne, O. C., & Rubin, K. H. (2010). Predicting mid-childhood interalising symptoms: Longitudinal community study. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 12, 5–17. doi:10.​1080/​14623730.​2010.​9721802.CrossRef
go back to reference Bayer, J., Sanson, A. V., & Hemphill, S. A. (2009). Early childhood aetiology of internalising difficulties: A longitudinal community study. The International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 11, 4–14.CrossRef Bayer, J., Sanson, A. V., & Hemphill, S. A. (2009). Early childhood aetiology of internalising difficulties: A longitudinal community study. The International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 11, 4–14.CrossRef
go back to reference Biederman, J., Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Rosenbaum, J. F., Hérot, C., Friedman, D., Snidman, N., et al. (2001). Further evidence of association between behavioral inhibition and social anxiety in children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1673–1679. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.10.1673.CrossRefPubMed Biederman, J., Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Rosenbaum, J. F., Hérot, C., Friedman, D., Snidman, N., et al. (2001). Further evidence of association between behavioral inhibition and social anxiety in children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1673–1679. doi:10.​1176/​appi.​ajp.​158.​10.​1673.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Borelli, J. L., Margolin, G., & Rasmussen, H. F. (2015). Parental overcontrol as a mechanism explaining the longitudinal association between parent and child anxiety. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 1559–1574. doi:10.1007/s10826-014-9960-1.CrossRef Borelli, J. L., Margolin, G., & Rasmussen, H. F. (2015). Parental overcontrol as a mechanism explaining the longitudinal association between parent and child anxiety. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 1559–1574. doi:10.​1007/​s10826-014-9960-1.CrossRef
go back to reference Buckner, J. D., Heimberg, R. G., Matthews, R. A., & Silgado, J. (2012). Marijuana-related problems and social anxiety: The role of marijuana behaviors in social situations. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26, 151–156. doi:10.1037/a0025822.CrossRefPubMed Buckner, J. D., Heimberg, R. G., Matthews, R. A., & Silgado, J. (2012). Marijuana-related problems and social anxiety: The role of marijuana behaviors in social situations. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26, 151–156. doi:10.​1037/​a0025822.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Carpenter, A. L., Puliafico, A. C., Kurtz, S. M. S., Pincus, D. B., & Comer, J. S. (2014). Extending parent–child interaction therapy for early childhood internalizing problems: New advances for an overlooked population. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17, 340–356. doi:10.1007/s10567-014-0172-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Carpenter, A. L., Puliafico, A. C., Kurtz, S. M. S., Pincus, D. B., & Comer, J. S. (2014). Extending parent–child interaction therapy for early childhood internalizing problems: New advances for an overlooked population. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17, 340–356. doi:10.​1007/​s10567-014-0172-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 319–333. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.67.2.319.CrossRef Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 319–333. doi:10.​1037/​0022-3514.​67.​2.​319.CrossRef
go back to reference Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. A., & Francis, S. E. (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: A revised child anxiety and depression scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 835–855. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(99)00130-8.CrossRefPubMed Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. A., & Francis, S. E. (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: A revised child anxiety and depression scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 835–855. doi:10.​1016/​S0005-7967(99)00130-8.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Coplan, R. J., Wilson, J., Frohlick, S. L., & Zelenski, J. (2006). A person-oriented analysis of behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation in children. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 917–927. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2006.02.019.CrossRef Coplan, R. J., Wilson, J., Frohlick, S. L., & Zelenski, J. (2006). A person-oriented analysis of behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation in children. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 917–927. doi:10.​1016/​j.​paid.​2006.​02.​019.CrossRef
go back to reference Drake, K. L., & Kearney, C. A. (2008). Child anxiety sensitivity and family environment as mediators of the relationship between parent psychopathology, parent anxiety sensitivity, and child anxiety. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 30, 79–86. doi:10.1007/s10862-007-9055-z.CrossRef Drake, K. L., & Kearney, C. A. (2008). Child anxiety sensitivity and family environment as mediators of the relationship between parent psychopathology, parent anxiety sensitivity, and child anxiety. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 30, 79–86. doi:10.​1007/​s10862-007-9055-z.CrossRef
go back to reference Gray, J. A. (1982). The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gray, J. A. (1982). The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Gray, J. A. (1987). The psychology of fear and stress (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. Gray, J. A. (1987). The psychology of fear and stress (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Hayward, C., Killen, J. D., Kraemer, H. C., & Taylor, C. B. (1998). Linking self-reported childhood behavioural inhibition to adolescent social phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1308–1316. doi:10.1097/00004583-199812000-00015.CrossRefPubMed Hayward, C., Killen, J. D., Kraemer, H. C., & Taylor, C. B. (1998). Linking self-reported childhood behavioural inhibition to adolescent social phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1308–1316. doi:10.​1097/​00004583-199812000-00015.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hudson, J. L., Dodd, H. F., Lyneham, H. J., & Bovopoulous, N. (2011). Temperament and family environment in the development of anxiety disorder: Two-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 1255–1264. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2011.09.009.CrossRefPubMed Hudson, J. L., Dodd, H. F., Lyneham, H. J., & Bovopoulous, N. (2011). Temperament and family environment in the development of anxiety disorder: Two-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 1255–1264. doi:10.​1016/​j.​jaac.​2011.​09.​009.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Jacobvitz, D., Hazen, N., Curran, M., & Hitchens, K. (2004). Observations of early triadic family interactions: Boundary disturbances in the family predict symptoms of depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in middle childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 577–592. doi:10.1017/S0954579404004675.CrossRefPubMed Jacobvitz, D., Hazen, N., Curran, M., & Hitchens, K. (2004). Observations of early triadic family interactions: Boundary disturbances in the family predict symptoms of depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in middle childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 577–592. doi:10.​1017/​S095457940400467​5.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Johnson, S. L., Turner, R. J., & Iwata, N. (2003). BIS/BAS levels and psychiatric disorder: An epidemiological study. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 25, 25–36. doi:10.1023/A:1022247919288.CrossRef Johnson, S. L., Turner, R. J., & Iwata, N. (2003). BIS/BAS levels and psychiatric disorder: An epidemiological study. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 25, 25–36. doi:10.​1023/​A:​1022247919288.CrossRef
go back to reference Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Snidman, N. (1986). Temperamental inhibition in early childhood. In R. Plomin & J. Dunn (Eds.), The study of temperament: Changes, continuities and challenges (pp. 53–67). Hillsdale: Erlbaum. Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Snidman, N. (1986). Temperamental inhibition in early childhood. In R. Plomin & J. Dunn (Eds.), The study of temperament: Changes, continuities and challenges (pp. 53–67). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
go back to reference Karwautz, A., Nobis, G., Haidvogl, M., Wagner, G., Hafferl-Gattermayer, A., Wöber-Bingöl, C., & Friedrich, M. H. (2003). Perceptions of family relationships in adolescents with anorexia nervosa and their unaffected sisters. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 12, 128–135. doi:10.1007/s00787-003-0319-1.CrossRefPubMed Karwautz, A., Nobis, G., Haidvogl, M., Wagner, G., Hafferl-Gattermayer, A., Wöber-Bingöl, C., & Friedrich, M. H. (2003). Perceptions of family relationships in adolescents with anorexia nervosa and their unaffected sisters. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 12, 128–135. doi:10.​1007/​s00787-003-0319-1.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kessler, R. C., Avenevoli, S., Costello, E., Georgiades, K., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., et al. (2012). Prevalence, persistence, and sociodemographic correlates of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 372–380. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.160.CrossRefPubMed Kessler, R. C., Avenevoli, S., Costello, E., Georgiades, K., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., et al. (2012). Prevalence, persistence, and sociodemographic correlates of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 372–380. doi:10.​1001/​archgenpsychiatr​y.​2011.​160.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kessler, R. C., Nelson, C. B., McGonagle, K. A., & Liu, J. (1996). Comorbidity of DSM-III—R major depressive disorder in the general population: Results from the US National Comorbidity Survey. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 17–30. Kessler, R. C., Nelson, C. B., McGonagle, K. A., & Liu, J. (1996). Comorbidity of DSM-III—R major depressive disorder in the general population: Results from the US National Comorbidity Survey. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 17–30.
go back to reference Kim-Cohen, J., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Harrington, H., Milne, B. J., & Poulton, R. (2003). Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: Developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 709–717. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.60.7.709.CrossRefPubMed Kim-Cohen, J., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Harrington, H., Milne, B. J., & Poulton, R. (2003). Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: Developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 709–717. doi:10.​1001/​archpsyc.​60.​7.​709.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lonigan, C. J., Phillips, B. M., & Hooe, E. S. (2003). Relations of positive and negative affectivity to anxiety and depression in children: Evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 465–481. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.71.3.465.CrossRefPubMed Lonigan, C. J., Phillips, B. M., & Hooe, E. S. (2003). Relations of positive and negative affectivity to anxiety and depression in children: Evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 465–481. doi:10.​1037/​0022-006X.​71.​3.​465.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McGinn, L. K., Jerome, Y., & Nooner, K. B. (2010). Family functioning and anxiety in school age children: The mediating role of control cognitions. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 3, 228–244. doi:10.1521/ijct.2010.3.3.228.CrossRef McGinn, L. K., Jerome, Y., & Nooner, K. B. (2010). Family functioning and anxiety in school age children: The mediating role of control cognitions. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 3, 228–244. doi:10.​1521/​ijct.​2010.​3.​3.​228.CrossRef
go back to reference Merikangas, K. R., He, J., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., et al. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 980–989. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.05.017.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Merikangas, K. R., He, J., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., et al. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 980–989. doi:10.​1016/​j.​jaac.​2010.​05.​017.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Muris, P., Meesters, C., de Kanter, E., & Timmerman, P. E. (2005). Behavioural inhibition and behavioural activation system scales for children: Relationships with Eysenck’s personality traits and psychopathological symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 831–841. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.06.007.CrossRef Muris, P., Meesters, C., de Kanter, E., & Timmerman, P. E. (2005). Behavioural inhibition and behavioural activation system scales for children: Relationships with Eysenck’s personality traits and psychopathological symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 831–841. doi:10.​1016/​j.​paid.​2004.​06.​007.CrossRef
go back to reference Muris, P., Meesters, C., & Gobel, M. (2001). Reliability, validity, and normative data of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in 8–12-yr-old children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 32, 63–72. doi:10.1016/S0005-7916(01)00022-2.CrossRefPubMed Muris, P., Meesters, C., & Gobel, M. (2001). Reliability, validity, and normative data of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in 8–12-yr-old children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 32, 63–72. doi:10.​1016/​S0005-7916(01)00022-2.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Muris, P., van Brakel, A. L., Arntz, A., & Schouten, E. (2011). Behavioral inhibition as a risk factor for the development of childhood anxiety disorders: A longitudinal study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 157–170. doi:10.1007/s10826-010-9365-8.CrossRefPubMed Muris, P., van Brakel, A. L., Arntz, A., & Schouten, E. (2011). Behavioral inhibition as a risk factor for the development of childhood anxiety disorders: A longitudinal study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 157–170. doi:10.​1007/​s10826-010-9365-8.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Nunnally, J. C. (1967). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill. Nunnally, J. C. (1967). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
go back to reference Olson, D. H. (2008). FACES IV manual. Minneapolis: Life Innovations. Olson, D. H. (2008). FACES IV manual. Minneapolis: Life Innovations.
go back to reference Peleg-Popko, O., & Dar, R. (2001). Marital quality, family patterns, and children’s fears and social anxiety. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 23, 465–487. doi:10.1023/A:1013057129790.CrossRef Peleg-Popko, O., & Dar, R. (2001). Marital quality, family patterns, and children’s fears and social anxiety. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 23, 465–487. doi:10.​1023/​A:​1013057129790.CrossRef
go back to reference Perosa, L., Hansen, J., & Perosa, S. (1981). Development of the Structural Family Interaction Scale. Family Therapy, 8, 77–90. Perosa, L., Hansen, J., & Perosa, S. (1981). Development of the Structural Family Interaction Scale. Family Therapy, 8, 77–90.
go back to reference Pine, D. S., Cohen, P., Gurley, D., Brook, J., & Ma, Y. (1998). The risk for early-adulthood anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 56–64. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.55.1.56.CrossRefPubMed Pine, D. S., Cohen, P., Gurley, D., Brook, J., & Ma, Y. (1998). The risk for early-adulthood anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 56–64. doi:10.​1001/​archpsyc.​55.​1.​56.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Plomin, R., Emde, R. N., Braungart, J. M., Campos, J., Corley, R., Fulker, D. W., et al. (1993). Genetic change and continuity from fourteen to twenty months: The MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study. Child Development, 64, 1354–1376. doi:10.2307/1131539.CrossRefPubMed Plomin, R., Emde, R. N., Braungart, J. M., Campos, J., Corley, R., Fulker, D. W., et al. (1993). Genetic change and continuity from fourteen to twenty months: The MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study. Child Development, 64, 1354–1376. doi:10.​2307/​1131539.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 36, 717–731. doi:10.3758/BF03206553.CrossRef Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 36, 717–731. doi:10.​3758/​BF03206553.CrossRef
go back to reference Reuter, M. (2008). Neuro-imaging and genetics. In P. J. Corr (Ed.), The reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality (pp. 317–344). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef Reuter, M. (2008). Neuro-imaging and genetics. In P. J. Corr (Ed.), The reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality (pp. 317–344). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
go back to reference Rork, K. E., & Morris, T. L. (2009). Influence of parenting factors on childhood social anxiety: Direct observation of parental warmth and control. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 31, 220–235. doi:10.1080/07317100903099274.CrossRef Rork, K. E., & Morris, T. L. (2009). Influence of parenting factors on childhood social anxiety: Direct observation of parental warmth and control. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 31, 220–235. doi:10.​1080/​0731710090309927​4.CrossRef
go back to reference Rosenbaum, J. F., Biederman, J., Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Kagan, J., Snidman, N., Friedman, D., et al. (2000). A controlled study of behavioral inhibition in children of parents with panic disorder and depression. American Journal of Psychiatry,. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.12.2002. Rosenbaum, J. F., Biederman, J., Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Kagan, J., Snidman, N., Friedman, D., et al. (2000). A controlled study of behavioral inhibition in children of parents with panic disorder and depression. American Journal of Psychiatry,. doi:10.​1176/​appi.​ajp.​157.​12.​2002.
go back to reference Scaini, S., Ogliari, A., Eley, T. C., Zavos, H. S., & Battaglia, M. (2012). Genetic and environmental contributions to separation anxiety: A meta-analytic approach to twin data. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 754–761. doi:10.1002/da.21941.CrossRefPubMed Scaini, S., Ogliari, A., Eley, T. C., Zavos, H. S., & Battaglia, M. (2012). Genetic and environmental contributions to separation anxiety: A meta-analytic approach to twin data. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 754–761. doi:10.​1002/​da.​21941.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Stevanovic, D. (2013). Impact of emotional and behavioral symptoms on quality of life in children and adolescents. Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care & Rehabilitation, 22, 333–337. doi:10.1007/s11136-012-0158-y.CrossRef Stevanovic, D. (2013). Impact of emotional and behavioral symptoms on quality of life in children and adolescents. Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care & Rehabilitation, 22, 333–337. doi:10.​1007/​s11136-012-0158-y.CrossRef
go back to reference Takahashi, Y., Yamagata, S., Kijima, N., Shigermasu, K., Ono, Y., & Ando, J. (2007). Continuity and change in behavioral inhibition and activation systems: A longitudinal behavioral genetic study. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1616–1625. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.04.030.CrossRef Takahashi, Y., Yamagata, S., Kijima, N., Shigermasu, K., Ono, Y., & Ando, J. (2007). Continuity and change in behavioral inhibition and activation systems: A longitudinal behavioral genetic study. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1616–1625. doi:10.​1016/​j.​paid.​2007.​04.​030.CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
The Role of BIS Sensitivity in the Relationship Between Family Enmeshment and Child Anxiety
Auteurs
Marsha Rowsell
Susan Doyle
Sarah E. Francis
Publicatiedatum
05-04-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 8/2016
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0415-8

Andere artikelen Uitgave 8/2016

Journal of Child and Family Studies 8/2016 Naar de uitgave