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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 1/2019

17-10-2018

The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales (RCADS): Psychometric Evaluation in Children Evaluated for ADHD

Auteurs: Stephen P. Becker, Dana N. Schindler, Alex S. Holdaway, Leanne Tamm, Jeffery N. Epstein, Aaron M. Luebbe

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 1/2019

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Abstract

Co-occurring internalizing symptoms are common and important to assess in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One frequently used child self-report measure of internalizing symptoms is the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales (RCADS), yet the psychometric properties of the RCADS remain unexamined in children referred for ADHD specifically. The present study evaluated the RCADS in 117 children (ages 8–12; 66% male) evaluated for suspected ADHD at an ADHD specialty clinic (83% met criteria for ADHD). In addition to the RCADS, children completed measures of social anxiety and depression. Parents completed the RCADS-Parent Version (RCADS-P) in addition to other measures of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Children and parents both completed a measure of aggression. Factor structure, reliability, and convergent/discriminant validity of the RCADS were examined. Results supported the six-factor structure of the child-report RCADS (Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder). The RCADS demonstrated adequate reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity with other child ratings. The total anxiety score on the RCADS also demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity with parent measures, though the depression score on the RCADS did not. Findings provide preliminary psychometric support for the RCADS in children referred for ADHD.
Voetnoten
1
When the RCADS was initially developed, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) was organized in the DSM in the Anxiety Disorders category. In DSM-5, OCD was moved to a new Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders category. However, where OCD is optimally classified in the DSM remains an area of ongoing discussion, particularly given high rates of comorbidity between OCD and the anxiety disorders, as well as familial and genetic associations and pharmacological treatment response (Storch et al. 2008). For this reason, and to be consistent with previous research examining the RCADS, we retained the OCD items as its own factor in this study.
 
2
It should be noted that a 5-factor model without OCD fit similarly to the 6-factor model we tested (5 factor model: χ2 (769) = 934.59, RMSEA = .04 (.03, .05); CFI = .93; WRMR = .99). Since the 6-factor model and 5-factor model are not nested, we could not directly compare the models with and without OCD, though the 6-factor with OCD fit slightly better than the 5-factor model without OCD (i.e., higher CFI and lower WRMR). In addition, all factor loadings on other scales were almost identical with or without OCD included.
 
3
We recognize that our clinically-referred sample of 117 children may not be optimally powered given the number of items on the RCADS. A post-hoc Monte Carlo simulation power analysis was conducted with 1000 replications. The population model was tested with N of 117 and a correctly-specified 6-factor model with factor loadings of .40 and interfactor correlations of .40. These values were chosen as conservative estimates based on actual results found. In the analysis, there were acceptably low levels of parameter and standard error bias and good coverage. Power was above .89 for all factor loadings (M = .93; range = .89–.96). Power for interfactor correlations ranged between .65 and .84 (M = .75). Note that .40 is the size of the smallest factor correlation found in the current study. Overall, the analysis suggested acceptable power given found results.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales (RCADS): Psychometric Evaluation in Children Evaluated for ADHD
Auteurs
Stephen P. Becker
Dana N. Schindler
Alex S. Holdaway
Leanne Tamm
Jeffery N. Epstein
Aaron M. Luebbe
Publicatiedatum
17-10-2018
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 1/2019
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-018-9702-6