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03-02-2017 | Uitgave 6/2017

Quality of Life Research 6/2017

The relationship between SF-6D utility scores and lifestyle factors across three life stages: evidence from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 6/2017
Jeeva Kanesarajah, Michael Waller, Jennifer A. Whitty, Gita D. Mishra
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s11136-017-1498-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



To investigate how SF-6D utility scores change with age between generations of women and to quantify the relationship of SF-6D with lifestyle factors across life stages.


Up to seven waves of self-reported, longitudinal data were drawn for the 1973–1978 (young, N = 13772), 1946–1951 (mid-age, N = 12792), 1921–1926 (older, N = 9972) cohorts from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Mixed effects models were employed for analysis.


Young and mid-age women had similar average SF-6D scores at baseline (0.63–0.64), which remained consistent over the 16-year period. However, older women had lower scores at baseline at 0.57 which steadily declined over 15 years. Across cohorts, low education attainment, greater difficulty in managing income, obesity, physical inactivity, heavy smoking, no alcohol consumption, and increasing stress levels were associated with lower SF-6D scores. The magnitude of effect varied between cohorts. SF-6D scores were lower amongst young women with high-risk drinking behaviours than low-risk drinkers. Mid-age women, who were underweight, never married, or underwent surgical menopause also reported lower SF-6D scores. Older women who lived in remote areas, who were ex-smokers, or were underweight, reported lower SF-6D scores.


The SF-6D utility score is sensitive to differences in lifestyle factors across adult life stages. Gradual loss of physical functioning may explain the steady decline in health for older women. Key factors associated with SF-6D include physical activity, body mass index, menopause status, smoking, alcohol use, and stress. Factors associated with poorer SF-6D scores vary in type and magnitude at different life stages.

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Extra materiaal
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 21 KB)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 25 KB)
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