The present study examines the unique contributions of the caregiving system to predicting adolescent behavioral problems as well as examining the interplay between the caregiving systems in both parents. Two hundred and sixty six, adolescents (147 females and 119 males; aged 11–19) and their parents completed measure of socio-emotional problems and caregiving representations, respectively. Maternal mental representation of caregiving-self was a significant predictor for internalizing and externalizing problems. The inclusion of paternal mental representations of caregiving-other in the model increased the variance only for externalizing problems. Our findings confirm that mental representations based on inability to perceive others as deserving help, and negative self-perception of abilities and skills to give help predict socio-emotional problems in their adolescents. The implications of the findings for future theoretical and empirical development of research in this field are discussed.