Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Behavioral Medicine 5/2020

20-12-2019

The relationship between minority stress and biological outcomes: A systematic review

Auteurs: Annesa Flentje, Nicholas C. Heck, James Michael Brennan, Ilan H. Meyer

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Behavioral Medicine | Uitgave 5/2020

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Sexual minority (non-heterosexual) individuals experience higher rates of physical health problems. Minority stress has been the primary explanatory model to account for this disparity. The purpose of this study was to identify in published research empirically established relationships between minority stress processes and biological outcomes and identify avenues for future research. The PubMed database was queried with search terms relevant to minority stress and a comprehensive list of physical and biological outcomes. To be included in the analysis, studies had to examine the relationship between minority stress and a biological outcome among sexual minority individuals. Those meeting inclusion criteria were coded for key variables including methodology used, positive and null results, participant characteristics, and specific minority stress processes and biological outcomes considered. In total, 26 studies met inclusion criteria. Studies tested relationships between specific minority stress processes including prejudice, expectations of prejudice, concealment of sexual orientation, and internalized stigma and multiple biological outcomes, such as overall physical health, immune response, HIV specific outcomes, cardiovascular outcomes, metabolic outcomes, cancer related outcomes, and hormonal outcomes. Studies included both analyses that detected this relationship (42% of analyses) and analyses that did not detect this relationship (58%). There is substantial evidence to support the relationship between minority stress and biological outcomes, yet additional research is needed to identify the measurements and outcomes that have the most rigorous and replicable results.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference Bauermeister, J. A., Meanley, S., Hickok, A., Pingel, E., VanHemert, W., & Loveluck, J. (2014). Sexuality-related work discrimination and its association with the health of sexual minority emerging and young adult men in the Detroit Metro Area. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 11, 1–10. PubMed Bauermeister, J. A., Meanley, S., Hickok, A., Pingel, E., VanHemert, W., & Loveluck, J. (2014). Sexuality-related work discrimination and its association with the health of sexual minority emerging and young adult men in the Detroit Metro Area. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 11, 1–10. PubMed
go back to reference Boehmer, U., Glickman, M., Winter, M., & Clark, M. A. (2013). Long-term breast cancer survivors’ symptoms and morbidity: Differences by sexual orientation? Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 7, 203–210. PubMed Boehmer, U., Glickman, M., Winter, M., & Clark, M. A. (2013). Long-term breast cancer survivors’ symptoms and morbidity: Differences by sexual orientation? Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 7, 203–210. PubMed
go back to reference Bogart, L. M., Landrine, H., Galvan, F. H., Wagner, G. J., & Klein, D. J. (2013). Perceived discrimination and physical health among HIV-positive Black and Latino men who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 17, 1431–1441. PubMedPubMedCentral Bogart, L. M., Landrine, H., Galvan, F. H., Wagner, G. J., & Klein, D. J. (2013). Perceived discrimination and physical health among HIV-positive Black and Latino men who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 17, 1431–1441. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Chae, D. H., & Walters, K. L. (2009). Racial discrimination and racial identity attitudes in relation to self-rated health and physical pain and impairment among two-spirit American Indians/Alaska Natives. American Journal of Public Health, 99, S144–S151. PubMedPubMedCentral Chae, D. H., & Walters, K. L. (2009). Racial discrimination and racial identity attitudes in relation to self-rated health and physical pain and impairment among two-spirit American Indians/Alaska Natives. American Journal of Public Health, 99, S144–S151. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Chu, J., Floyd, R., Diep, H., Pardo, S., Goldblum, P., & Bongar, B. (2013). A tool for the culturally competent assessment of suicide: The cultural assessment of risk for suicide (CARS) measure. Psychological Assessment, 25, 424. PubMed Chu, J., Floyd, R., Diep, H., Pardo, S., Goldblum, P., & Bongar, B. (2013). A tool for the culturally competent assessment of suicide: The cultural assessment of risk for suicide (CARS) measure. Psychological Assessment, 25, 424. PubMed
go back to reference Cochran, S. D., Ackerman, D., Mays, V. M., & Ross, M. W. (2004). Prevalence of non-medical drug use and dependence among homosexually active men and women in the US population. Addiction, 99, 989–998. PubMedPubMedCentral Cochran, S. D., Ackerman, D., Mays, V. M., & Ross, M. W. (2004). Prevalence of non-medical drug use and dependence among homosexually active men and women in the US population. Addiction, 99, 989–998. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (2007). Physical health complaints among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual and homosexually experienced heterosexual individuals: Results from the California Quality of Life Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 2048–2055. PubMedPubMedCentral Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (2007). Physical health complaints among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual and homosexually experienced heterosexual individuals: Results from the California Quality of Life Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 2048–2055. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Cochran, S. D., Sullivan, J. G., & Mays, V. M. (2003). Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental health services use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 53. PubMedPubMedCentral Cochran, S. D., Sullivan, J. G., & Mays, V. M. (2003). Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental health services use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 53. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., Doyle, W. J., Miller, G. E., Frank, E., Rabin, B. S., et al. (2012). Chronic stress, glucocorticoid receptor resistance, inflammation, and disease risk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 5995–5999. Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., Doyle, W. J., Miller, G. E., Frank, E., Rabin, B. S., et al. (2012). Chronic stress, glucocorticoid receptor resistance, inflammation, and disease risk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 5995–5999.
go back to reference Cole, S. W., Hawkley, L. C., Arevalo, J. M., Sung, C. Y., Rose, R. M., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2007). Social regulation of gene expression in human leukocytes. Genome Biology, 8, R189. PubMedPubMedCentral Cole, S. W., Hawkley, L. C., Arevalo, J. M., Sung, C. Y., Rose, R. M., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2007). Social regulation of gene expression in human leukocytes. Genome Biology, 8, R189. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Cole, S. W., Kemeny, M. E., Taylor, S. E., & Visscher, B. R. (1996a). Elevated physical health risk among gay men who conceal their homosexual identity. Health Psychology, 15, 243. PubMed Cole, S. W., Kemeny, M. E., Taylor, S. E., & Visscher, B. R. (1996a). Elevated physical health risk among gay men who conceal their homosexual identity. Health Psychology, 15, 243. PubMed
go back to reference Cole, S. W., Kemeny, M. E., Taylor, S. E., Visscher, B. R., & Fahey, J. L. (1996b). Accelerated course of human immunodeficiency virus infection in gay men who conceal their homosexual identity. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 219–231. PubMed Cole, S. W., Kemeny, M. E., Taylor, S. E., Visscher, B. R., & Fahey, J. L. (1996b). Accelerated course of human immunodeficiency virus infection in gay men who conceal their homosexual identity. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 219–231. PubMed
go back to reference Conron, K. J., Mimiaga, M. J., & Landers, S. J. (2010). A population-based study of sexual orientation identity and gender differences in adult health. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 1953–1960. PubMedPubMedCentral Conron, K. J., Mimiaga, M. J., & Landers, S. J. (2010). A population-based study of sexual orientation identity and gender differences in adult health. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 1953–1960. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Dickerson, S. S., Gable, S. L., Irwin, M. R., Aziz, N., & Kemeny, M. E. (2009). Social-evaluative threat and proinflammatory cytokine regulation an experimental laboratory investigation. Psychological Science, 20, 1237–1244. PubMedPubMedCentral Dickerson, S. S., Gable, S. L., Irwin, M. R., Aziz, N., & Kemeny, M. E. (2009). Social-evaluative threat and proinflammatory cytokine regulation an experimental laboratory investigation. Psychological Science, 20, 1237–1244. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Dickerson, S. S., & Kemeny, M. E. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: A theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 355. PubMed Dickerson, S. S., & Kemeny, M. E. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: A theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 355. PubMed
go back to reference Doyle, D. M., & Molix, L. (2016). Minority stress and inflammatory mediators: Covering moderates associations between perceived discrimination and salivary interleukin-6 in gay men. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 39, 782–792. PubMedPubMedCentral Doyle, D. M., & Molix, L. (2016). Minority stress and inflammatory mediators: Covering moderates associations between perceived discrimination and salivary interleukin-6 in gay men. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 39, 782–792. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Flentje, A., Kober, K., Carrico, A. W., Neilands, T. B., Flowers, E., Heck, N. C., et al. (2018). Minority stress and leukocyte gene expression in sexual minority men living with treated HIV infection. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 70, 335–345. PubMedPubMedCentral Flentje, A., Kober, K., Carrico, A. W., Neilands, T. B., Flowers, E., Heck, N. C., et al. (2018). Minority stress and leukocyte gene expression in sexual minority men living with treated HIV infection. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 70, 335–345. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Friedman, M. R., Sang, J. M., Bukowski, L. A., Matthews, D. D., Eaton, L. A., Raymond, H. F., et al. (2018). HIV care continuum disparities among black bisexual men and the mediating effect of psychosocial comorbidities. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 77, 451–458. PubMed Friedman, M. R., Sang, J. M., Bukowski, L. A., Matthews, D. D., Eaton, L. A., Raymond, H. F., et al. (2018). HIV care continuum disparities among black bisexual men and the mediating effect of psychosocial comorbidities. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 77, 451–458. PubMed
go back to reference Frost, D. M., Lehavot, K., & Meyer, I. H. (2015). Minority stress and physical health among sexual minority individuals. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 38, 1–8. PubMed Frost, D. M., Lehavot, K., & Meyer, I. H. (2015). Minority stress and physical health among sexual minority individuals. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 38, 1–8. PubMed
go back to reference Frost, D. M., & Meyer, I. H. (2009). Internalized homophobia and relationship quality among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56, 97–109. PubMedPubMedCentral Frost, D. M., & Meyer, I. H. (2009). Internalized homophobia and relationship quality among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56, 97–109. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Gaab, J., Rohleder, N., Nater, U. M., & Ehlert, U. (2005). Psychological determinants of the cortisol stress response: The role of anticipatory cognitive appraisal. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 599–610. PubMed Gaab, J., Rohleder, N., Nater, U. M., & Ehlert, U. (2005). Psychological determinants of the cortisol stress response: The role of anticipatory cognitive appraisal. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 599–610. PubMed
go back to reference Gamarel, K. E., Neilands, T. B., Dilworth, S. E., Taylor, J. M., & Johnson, M. O. (2015). Smoking, internalized heterosexism, and HIV disease management among male couples. AIDS Care, 27, 649–654. PubMed Gamarel, K. E., Neilands, T. B., Dilworth, S. E., Taylor, J. M., & Johnson, M. O. (2015). Smoking, internalized heterosexism, and HIV disease management among male couples. AIDS Care, 27, 649–654. PubMed
go back to reference Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2009). How does sexual minority stigma “get under the skin”? A psychological mediation framework. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 707. PubMedPubMedCentral Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2009). How does sexual minority stigma “get under the skin”? A psychological mediation framework. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 707. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2014). Structural stigma and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis reactivity in lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 47, 39–47. PubMedPubMedCentral Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2014). Structural stigma and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis reactivity in lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 47, 39–47. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Hendricks, M. L., & Testa, R. J. (2012). A conceptual framework for clinical work with transgender and gender nonconforming clients: An adaptation of the minority stress model. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43, 460. Hendricks, M. L., & Testa, R. J. (2012). A conceptual framework for clinical work with transgender and gender nonconforming clients: An adaptation of the minority stress model. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43, 460.
go back to reference Hengge, U. R., Reimann, G., Schäfer, A., & Goos, M. (2003). HIV-positive men differ in immunologic but not catecholamine response to an acute psychological stressor. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28, 643–656. PubMed Hengge, U. R., Reimann, G., Schäfer, A., & Goos, M. (2003). HIV-positive men differ in immunologic but not catecholamine response to an acute psychological stressor. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28, 643–656. PubMed
go back to reference Herek, G. M., & Garnets, L. D. (2007). Sexual orientation and mental health. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 353–375. PubMed Herek, G. M., & Garnets, L. D. (2007). Sexual orientation and mental health. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 353–375. PubMed
go back to reference Huebner, D. M., & Davis, M. C. (2005). Gay and bisexual men who disclose their sexual orientations in the workplace have higher workday levels of salivary cortisol and negative affect. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 30, 260–267. PubMed Huebner, D. M., & Davis, M. C. (2005). Gay and bisexual men who disclose their sexual orientations in the workplace have higher workday levels of salivary cortisol and negative affect. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 30, 260–267. PubMed
go back to reference Institute of Medicine. (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Institute of Medicine. (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
go back to reference Johns, M. M., Lowry, R., Demissie, Z., & Robin, L. (2017). Harassment and mental distress among adolescent female students by sexual identity and BMI or perceived weight status. Obesity, 25, 1421–1427. PubMed Johns, M. M., Lowry, R., Demissie, Z., & Robin, L. (2017). Harassment and mental distress among adolescent female students by sexual identity and BMI or perceived weight status. Obesity, 25, 1421–1427. PubMed
go back to reference Juster, R.-P., Smith, N. G., Ouellet, É., Sindi, S., & Lupien, S. J. (2013). Sexual orientation and disclosure in relation to psychiatric symptoms, diurnal cortisol, and allostatic load. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75, 103–116. PubMed Juster, R.-P., Smith, N. G., Ouellet, É., Sindi, S., & Lupien, S. J. (2013). Sexual orientation and disclosure in relation to psychiatric symptoms, diurnal cortisol, and allostatic load. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75, 103–116. PubMed
go back to reference Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
go back to reference Li, P., Huang, Y., Guo, L., Wang, W., Xi, C., Lei, Y., et al. (2017). Is sexual minority status associated with poor sleep quality among adolescents? Analysis of a national cross-sectional survey in Chinese adolescents. British Medical Journal Open, 7, e017067. Li, P., Huang, Y., Guo, L., Wang, W., Xi, C., Lei, Y., et al. (2017). Is sexual minority status associated with poor sleep quality among adolescents? Analysis of a national cross-sectional survey in Chinese adolescents. British Medical Journal Open, 7, e017067.
go back to reference Livingston, N., Flentje, A., Heck, N. C., Szalda-Petree, A., & Cochran, B. N. (2017). Ecological momentary assessment of daily prejudice experiences and nicotine, alcohol, and drug use among sexual and gender minority individuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85, 1131–1143. PubMedPubMedCentral Livingston, N., Flentje, A., Heck, N. C., Szalda-Petree, A., & Cochran, B. N. (2017). Ecological momentary assessment of daily prejudice experiences and nicotine, alcohol, and drug use among sexual and gender minority individuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85, 1131–1143. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Manigault, A. W., Figueroa, W. S., Hollenbeck, C. R., Mendlein, A. E., Woody, A., Hamilton, K. R., et al. (2018). When family matters most: A test of the association between sexual minority identity disclosure context and diurnal cortisol in sexual minority young adults. Psychosomatic Medicine, 80, 717–723. PubMed Manigault, A. W., Figueroa, W. S., Hollenbeck, C. R., Mendlein, A. E., Woody, A., Hamilton, K. R., et al. (2018). When family matters most: A test of the association between sexual minority identity disclosure context and diurnal cortisol in sexual minority young adults. Psychosomatic Medicine, 80, 717–723. PubMed
go back to reference Martin-Storey, A., Prickett, K. C., & Crosnoe, R. (2018). Disparities in sleep duration and restedness among same and different sex couples: Findings from the American time use survey. Sleep, 41, 1–11. Martin-Storey, A., Prickett, K. C., & Crosnoe, R. (2018). Disparities in sleep duration and restedness among same and different sex couples: Findings from the American time use survey. Sleep, 41, 1–11.
go back to reference Mason, T. B. (2016). Binge eating and overweight and obesity among young adult lesbians. LGBT Health, 3, 472–476. PubMed Mason, T. B. (2016). Binge eating and overweight and obesity among young adult lesbians. LGBT Health, 3, 472–476. PubMed
go back to reference Mason, T. B., & Lewis, R. J. (2015). Minority stress, depression, relationship quality, and alcohol use: Associations with overweight and obesity among partnered young adult lesbians. LGBT Health, 2, 333–340. PubMedPubMedCentral Mason, T. B., & Lewis, R. J. (2015). Minority stress, depression, relationship quality, and alcohol use: Associations with overweight and obesity among partnered young adult lesbians. LGBT Health, 2, 333–340. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference McCabe, S. E., Bostwick, W. B., Hughes, T. L., West, B. T., & Boyd, C. J. (2010). The relationship between discrimination and substance use disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 1946–1952. PubMedPubMedCentral McCabe, S. E., Bostwick, W. B., Hughes, T. L., West, B. T., & Boyd, C. J. (2010). The relationship between discrimination and substance use disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 1946–1952. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Mereish, E. H. (2014). The weight of discrimination: The relationship between heterosexist discrimination and obesity among lesbian women. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1, 356. Mereish, E. H. (2014). The weight of discrimination: The relationship between heterosexist discrimination and obesity among lesbian women. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1, 356.
go back to reference Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674. PubMedPubMedCentral Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Miller, G., Rohleder, N., & Cole, S. W. (2009). Chronic interpersonal stress predicts activation of pro-and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways six months later. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 57. PubMed Miller, G., Rohleder, N., & Cole, S. W. (2009). Chronic interpersonal stress predicts activation of pro-and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways six months later. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 57. PubMed
go back to reference Miller, G. E., Cohen, S., & Ritchey, A. K. (2002). Chronic psychological stress and the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines: A glucocorticoid-resistance model. Health Psychology, 21, 531. PubMed Miller, G. E., Cohen, S., & Ritchey, A. K. (2002). Chronic psychological stress and the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines: A glucocorticoid-resistance model. Health Psychology, 21, 531. PubMed
go back to reference Miller, G. E., & Cole, S. W. (2012). Clustering of depression and inflammation in adolescents previously exposed to childhood adversity. Biological Psychiatry, 72, 34–40. PubMedPubMedCentral Miller, G. E., & Cole, S. W. (2012). Clustering of depression and inflammation in adolescents previously exposed to childhood adversity. Biological Psychiatry, 72, 34–40. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Mohr, J., & Fassinger, R. (2000). Measuring dimensions of lesbian and gay male experience. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 33, 66–90. Mohr, J., & Fassinger, R. (2000). Measuring dimensions of lesbian and gay male experience. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 33, 66–90.
go back to reference Norcini Pala, A., Hart, R. P., & Steca, P. (2015). Minority stress, depression and HIV-progression biomarkers: An exploratory study on a sample of Italian HIV-positive gay and bisexual men. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 19, 244–260. Norcini Pala, A., Hart, R. P., & Steca, P. (2015). Minority stress, depression and HIV-progression biomarkers: An exploratory study on a sample of Italian HIV-positive gay and bisexual men. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 19, 244–260.
go back to reference Page, M. J., McKenzie, J. E., & Higgins, J. P. (2018). Tools for assessing risk of reporting biases in studies and syntheses of studies: A systematic review. British Medical Journal Open, 8, e019703. Page, M. J., McKenzie, J. E., & Higgins, J. P. (2018). Tools for assessing risk of reporting biases in studies and syntheses of studies: A systematic review. British Medical Journal Open, 8, e019703.
go back to reference Parra, L. A., Benibgui, M., Helm, J. L., & Hastings, P. D. (2016). Minority stress predicts depression in lesbian, gay, and bisexual emerging adults via elevated diurnal cortisol. Emerging Adulthood, 4, 365–372. Parra, L. A., Benibgui, M., Helm, J. L., & Hastings, P. D. (2016). Minority stress predicts depression in lesbian, gay, and bisexual emerging adults via elevated diurnal cortisol. Emerging Adulthood, 4, 365–372.
go back to reference Slavich, G. M., & Cole, S. W. (2013). The emerging field of human social genomics. Clinical Psychological Science, 1, 331–348. PubMedPubMedCentral Slavich, G. M., & Cole, S. W. (2013). The emerging field of human social genomics. Clinical Psychological Science, 1, 331–348. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Stall, R., Paul, J. P., Greenwood, G., Pollack, L. M., Bein, E., Crosby, G. M., et al. (2001). Alcohol use, drug use and alcohol-related problems among men who have sex with men: The Urban Men’s Health Study. Addiction, 96, 1589–1601. PubMed Stall, R., Paul, J. P., Greenwood, G., Pollack, L. M., Bein, E., Crosby, G. M., et al. (2001). Alcohol use, drug use and alcohol-related problems among men who have sex with men: The Urban Men’s Health Study. Addiction, 96, 1589–1601. PubMed
go back to reference Szymanski, D. M. (2006). Does internalized heterosexism moderate the link between heterosexist events and lesbians’ psychological distress? Sex Roles, 54, 227–234. Szymanski, D. M. (2006). Does internalized heterosexism moderate the link between heterosexist events and lesbians’ psychological distress? Sex Roles, 54, 227–234.
go back to reference Ullrich, P. M., Lutgendorf, S. K., & Stapleton, J. T. (2003). Concealment of homosexual identity, social support and CD4 cell count among HIV-seropositive gay men. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 54, 205–212. PubMed Ullrich, P. M., Lutgendorf, S. K., & Stapleton, J. T. (2003). Concealment of homosexual identity, social support and CD4 cell count among HIV-seropositive gay men. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 54, 205–212. PubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
The relationship between minority stress and biological outcomes: A systematic review
Auteurs
Annesa Flentje
Nicholas C. Heck
James Michael Brennan
Ilan H. Meyer
Publicatiedatum
20-12-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Behavioral Medicine / Uitgave 5/2020
Print ISSN: 0160-7715
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3521
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-019-00120-6