Imagine two third year medical students who are identical in almost every way. They wrote identical reflective reports, for which they both received an A−. They both have an IQ of 130, are generally liked by teachers, and their GPA is 3.7. Additionally, they filled in a questionnaire measuring reflective skills, on which they both scored identically. As medical students, they only differ in one aspect: while one of the students has actually reflected, the other just pretended to do so’. How do we know which is which?