Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Anxiety disorders are one of the most widespread psychological diseases in adolescence, which may lead to impairment in several areas of life and has been demonstrated a risk factor of other psychiatric disorders. One of the most widely used self-report measures to assess multiple symptoms of anxiety in youth is the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS). Literature suggests that anxiety symptoms vary across cultures to some extent. It has been found that individuals from collectivistic culture report higher levels of anxiety disorders than those from individualistic culture. Poland is a country whose culture was traditionally collectivistic; but now Poland is undergoing social and economic system transformation, which is taking it closer to individualistic culture. However, SCAS has never been validated in Polish samples, and thus the current study aimed (1) to assess the psychometric properties (structural validity and reliability) of SCAS in a sample of 303 Polish adolescents, (2) to examine gender differences, (3) to test the divergent validity of SCAS by relating it to the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and (4) to compare the mean levels with Chinese (collectivistic) and Italian (individualistic) samples. The results confirmed that the Polish version of SCAS showed good reliability and validity. Polish girls showed higher physical injury and generalized anxiety/overanxious symptoms than boys. Furthermore, Polish adolescents reported higher levels of anxiety than Italian youth but lower levels of anxiety than their Chinese counterparts. Implications for professionals and researchers are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th. edn. Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. http://apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx.
Antony, M. M., & Stein, M. B. (2009). Oxford handbook of anxiety and related disorders. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bertola, G., & Checchi, D., (2002). Sorting and private education in Italy. CEPR Discussion Papers 3198, C.E.P.R. http://www.cepr.org/pubs/dps/DP3198.
Birndorf, S., Ryan, S., Auinger, P., & Aten, M. (2005). High self-esteem among adolescents: Longitudinal trends, sex differences, and protective factors. The Journal of the Adolescent Health, 37, 194–201. CrossRef
Bruce, T. J., & Sanderson, W. C. (1998). Specific phobias: Clinical Applications of evidence-based psychotherapy. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd edn. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Costello, E. J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 837–844.
Crane Amaya, A., & Campbell, M. (2010). Cross cultural comparison of anxiety symptoms in Colombian and Australian children. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 8, 497–516.
Craske, M. G. (2003). Origins of phobias and anxiety disorders: Why more women than men? Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Dello-Iacovo, B. (2009). Curriculum reform and quality education in China: An overview. International Journal of Educational Development, 29, 241–249. CrossRef
Delvecchio, E. (2013). Protective and mediator factors for internalizing disorders in early and mid-adolescence. (Unpublished doctorate thesis). University of Padua.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.
Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. New Haven, CT: Yale-University. (Unpublished working paper).
Laguna, M., Lachowicz-Tabaczek, K., & Dzwonkowska, I. (2007). Skala samooceny SES Morrisa Rosenberga—polska adaptacja metody [The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Polish adaptation of the scale]. Psychologia Spoleczna, 2, 164–176.
Li, J., Delvecchio, E., Lis, A., Nie, Y., & Di Riso, D. (2016). The parent-report version of the spence children’s anxiety scale (SCAS-P) in Chinese and Italian community samples: Validation and cross-cultural comparison. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 47, 369–383. doi: 10.1007/s10578-015-0572-9. CrossRefPubMed
Lubiewska, K. (2014). Znaczenie kolektywizmu i indywidualizmu dla zachowań rodzicielskich matek oraz przywiązania polskich i niemieckich nastolatków w perspektywie hipotezy kulturowego dopasowania [Cultural fit hypothesis: The impact of individualism-collectivism on maternal parenting and adolescent attachment in Germany and Poland]. Psychologia Społeczna, 2, 200–220.
Mielimąka, M., Rutkowski, K., Cyranka, K., Sobański, J.A., Dembińska, E., & Müldner-Nieckowski, L. (2015). Trait and state anxiety in patients treated with intensive short-term group psychotherapy for neurotic and personality disorders. Psychiatria Polska, 36. doi: 10.12740/PP/OnlineFirst/60537.
Muchacka B. (2014). Expert report on the characteristics of polish primary education. http://www.transfam.socjologia.uj.edu.pl/documents/32445283/1b4b6f7f-23da-4b60-985d-5fe63a38b957.
Muris, P., Meesters, C., Pierik, A., & de Kock, B. (2016). Good for the self: Self-compassion and other self-related constructs in relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression in non-clinical youths. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 607–617. doi: 10.1007/s10826-015-0235-2. CrossRefPubMed
Muris, P., Schmidt, H., & Merckelbach, H. (2000). Correlations among two self-report for child anxiety related emotional disorders and the spence children’s anxiety scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 333–346. CrossRef
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus user’s guide. 7th edn Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Quach, A., & Harnek Hall, D. (2013). Chinese American attitudes toward therapy: Effects of gender, shame, and acculturation. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3, 209–222.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. CrossRef
Roberts, J. (2006). Self-esteem from a clinical perspective. In M. Kernis (Ed.), Self-esteem issues and answers: A sourcebook of current perspectives. New York: Psychology Press.
Różycka, J., Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M., & Khanh Ha, T. T. (2013). Wartości osobiste i kulturowe w ujęciu Shaloma Schwartza w kulturze polskiej i wietnamskiej [Schwartz’s personal and cultural values in Polish and Vietnamese cultures]. Psychologia Społeczna, 4, 408–421.
Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Test of significance and descriptive goodness of fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research, 8, 23–74.
Silberg, J., Rutter, M., Neale, M., & Eaves, L. (2001). Genetic moderation of environmental risk for depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 116–121.
Stefaniak, A., & Bilewicz, M. (2016). Contact with a multicultural past: A prejudice-reducing intervention. International. Journal of Intercultural Relations, 50, 60–65. CrossRef
Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., & Costello, A. (1987). Psychopathology in the offspring of anxiety disorders patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 229–235.
Van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Hambleton, R. K. (1996). Translating tests: Some practical guidelines. European Psychologist, 1, 89–99. CrossRef
Wærdahl, R. (2016). The invisible immigrant child in the norwegian classroom: Losing sight of polish children’s immigrant status through unarticulated differences and behind good intentions. Central and Eastern European Migration Review, 5, 93–108.
Wenar, C., & Kerig, P. (2000). Developmental psychopathology: From infancy through adolescence. 4th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Wojciszke, B. (2004). The negative social world: Polish culture of complaining. International Journal of Sociology, 34, 38–59.
Wojciszke, B., Baryla, W., Szymków-Sudziarska, A., Parzuchowski, M., & Kowalczyk, K. (2009). Saying is experiencing: Affective consequences of complaining and affirmation. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 40, 74–84. CrossRef
- The Polish Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale: Preliminary Evidence on Validity and Cross-Cultural Comparison
- Springer US