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01-04-2006 | Uitgave 2/2006

Journal of Youth and Adolescence 2/2006

The Peer Appearance Culture During Adolescence: Gender and Body Mass Variations

Tijdschrift:
Journal of Youth and Adolescence > Uitgave 2/2006
Auteurs:
Diane Carlson Jones, Joy K. Crawford
Belangrijke opmerkingen
Associate Professor in Educational Psychology at the University of Washington. She is a developmental psychologist specializing in the contributions of peers to body image and social-emotional well-being during adolescence. Research interests include body image during adolescence and gender differences.
Doctoral student at the University of Washington in Human Development and Cognition. Her research focuses on the social-emotional development of adolescents, academic and appearance social comparisons, and issues related to gender and science. Research interests include body image during adolescence, gender differences, social comparison, and academic competence.
APPENDIX
Factor Loadings for Peer Appearance Culture Measures
 
Factors
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Appearance conversations with friends
 My friends and I talk about what we can do to look our best
.15
.00
.80
.04
.10
.01
.05
.02
 My friends and I talk about what we would like our bodies to look like
.06
.20
.77
.01
.13
.19
.03
.20
 My friends and I talk about how to look attractive
.10
.10
.77
.01
.29
.15
.08
.09
 My friends and I talk about the our looks
.13
.04
.81
.02
.13
.24
.00
.11
 My friends and I talk about how our bodies look in our clothes
.05
.03
.82
.01
.10
.21
.08
.14
Body change strategies: diet (girls)/muscle talk (boys)
 My friends and I talk about losing weight/building our muscles
.13
.00
.41
.14
.73
.26
.00
.01
 I talk with my friends about ways to lose weight/build muscles
.15
.01
.26
.17
.82
.19
.01
.01
 My friends and I talk about going on diets/weight lifting
.16
.00
.14
.15
.87
.14
.01
.01
 My friends and I go on diets together/do body building together
.21
.01
.01
.11
.82
.00
.00
.00
 My friends and I talk about different ways to diet/to build muscle
.19
.01
.18
.01
.86
.01
.01
.01
Peer appearance pressure
 Boys who are my friends say I should go on a diet/build up my muscles
.55
.23
.11
.26
.34
.17
.02
.30
 Girls who are my friends say I would look better if I were thinner/had a more muscular build
.70
.22
.16
.16
.17
.02
.01
.09
 Boys who are my friends say I would look better if I were thinner/more muscular
.73
.27
.16
.22
.12
.07
.04
.03
 Girls who are my friends say I should go on a diet/build up my muscles
.74
.20
.10
.19
.21
.02
.00
.01
 Boys who I don't hang out with say I should go on a diet/build up my muscles
.67
.29
.06
.07
.04
.16
.11
.01
 Girls who I don't hang out with say I would look better if I were thinner/had a more muscular build
.77
.19
.00
.14
.10
.11
.06
.04
 Boys who I don't hang out with say I would look better if I were thinner/more muscular
.81
.21
.08
.04
.17
.08
.05
.18
 Girls who I don't hang out with say I should go on a diet/build up my muscles
.82
.23
.12
.08
.13
.05
.02
.12
Appearance teasing
 Boys who are my friends tease me or make fun of the size or shape of my body
.14
.64
.18
.33
.06
.04
.07
.11
 Girls who are my friends laugh at me or make fun of me because of my body
.35
.65
.16
.09
.01
.11
.02
.09
 Girls who are my friends tease me or make fun of me because of the size or build of my body
.42
.65
.23
.09
.03
.01
.02
.02
 Boys who are my friends laugh at me or make fun of me because of my body
.22
.73
.16
.22
.06
.07
.07
.22
 Boys who I don't hang out with tease me or make fun of the size or shape of my body
.22
.75
.06
.00
.04
.12
.06
.28
 Girls who I don't hang out with laugh at me or make fun of me because of my body
.32
.66
.00
.01
.01
.14
.09
.25
 Girls who I don't hang out with tease me or make fun of me because of the size or build of my body
.30
.76
.05
.02
.03
.12
.11
.23
 Boys who I don't hang out with laugh at me or make fun of me because of my body
.40
.59
.06
.02
.03
.05
.06
.23
Vicarious teasing
 I hear students make fun of other kids because of their weight
.03
.15
.08
.08
.05
.10
.83
.01
 I hear students call other kids names because of their shape
.06
.08
.06
.00
.07
.06
.88
.01
 I hear students make fun of other kids because of their shape
.09
.01
.04
.09
.01
.04
.90
.04
 I hear students laugh at other kids because of their weight
.01
.08
.02
.02
.12
.03
.88
.00
Appearance-based acceptance
 If I had a thinner/more muscular body, I think that girls would pay more attention to me
.18
.07
.07
.81
.18
.27
.04
.11
 I think girls would accept me more if I were thinner/more muscular
.25
.13
.01
.79
.13
.23
.02
.20
 If I were thinner/more muscular, I think girls would want to spend more time with me
.18
.11
.06
.85
.18
.23
.02
.11
 I think girls would accept me more if I were thinner/more muscular
.17
.12
.03
.82
.13
.21
.01
.19
 I think boys would talk to me more if I were thinner/more muscular
.17
.13
.26
.40
.03
.31
.06
.66
 If I were thinner/more muscular, I think boys would want to spend more time with me
.14
.16
.27
.48
.11
.26
.02
.63
 I think that having a thin/muscular body is a good way for me to be accepted by boys
.16
.16
.29
.35
.08
.34
.03
.60
 If I had a thinner/more muscular body, I think that boys would pay more attention to me
.09
.07
.24
.51
.06
.27
.07
.66
Peer appearance comparisons
 How frequently do you compare yourself to same-sex peers?
        
 Weight
.05
.15
.31
.18
.07
.64
.06
.18
 Shape/build
.08
.08
.21
.23
.21
.79
.08
.09
 Hips/chest and pecs
.16
.15
.12
.21
.17
.79
.07
.03
 Stomach
.05
.05
.29
.24
.09
.74
.04
.18
 Thighs/biceps
.16
.06
.19
.23
.15
.81
.09
.16
The purpose of this research was to examine gender and body mass, as factors linked to perceived experiences within the peer appearance culture. The sample included 215 girls and 200 boys who were either in 7th grade or 10th grade. Students provided self-reports on experiences in three domains: appearance culture among friends (appearance conversations and diet/muscle talk), peer evaluations (peer appearance pressure, appearance teasing, and vicarious peer teasing), and peer acceptance concerns (appearance-based acceptance, peer appearance comparison). The results indicated that although girls reported more appearance conversations, boys perceived more appearance pressure and teasing. Boys also admitted that they talked with friends about muscle building at a rate greater than girls talked about dieting. BMI showed distinct gender patterns. BMI was a key attribute that unified the experiences within the appearance culture for overweight girls. Among the boys, BMI was associated with differentiated experiences for underweight and overweight participants.

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