Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

17-06-2017 | ORIGINAL PAPER

The Mindful Personality: a Meta-analysis from a Cybernetic Perspective

Auteurs: Adam W. Hanley, Eric L. Garland

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 6/2017

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Dispositional mindfulness (DM), or the tendency to attend to present moment experience, may have important implications for the structure of human personality. However, relationships between DM and the Big Five Model of Personality (BF) have not been definitively established. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to extend previous investigations of the relationship between DM and the BF, utilizing a larger sample of studies, attending to relational inconsistencies potentially associated with alternative methods of operationalizing DM, conducting the first meta-analysis of the DM subdomains in relation to the BF, and situating the results in a cybernetic model. Results indicate that neuroticism evidenced the strongest, negative relationship with DM and conscientiousness evidenced the strongest, positive relationship with DM, suggesting the mindful personality may be characterized principally by emotional stability and conscientious self-regulation—potentially reflective of an inclination towards the personality metatrait stability. Measurement differences were also observed, with the mindful personality arrived at through the FFMQ differing to some extent from the mindful personality emerging from the MAAS. Broadly, the mindful personality associated with the FFMQ appears to reflect greater personality complexity, with the FFMQ evidencing associations with all five personality factors while the MAAS appears primarily linked with only three personality factors (neuroticism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness). Examination of the relationships between the BF and DM at the facet level also suggests unique patterns of association between the DM facets and each of the personality factors.
Literatuur
go back to reference Bäckström, M., & Björklund, F. (2013). Social desirability in personality inventories: symptoms, diagnosis and prescribed cure. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(2), 152–159.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Bäckström, M., & Björklund, F. (2013). Social desirability in personality inventories: symptoms, diagnosis and prescribed cure. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(2), 152–159.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191-206. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191-206.
go back to reference *Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27–45. *Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27–45.
go back to reference Barnes, S., Brown, K. W., Krusemark, E., Campbell, W. K., & Rogge, R. D. (2007). The role of mindfulness in romantic relationship satisfaction and responses to relationship stress. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 482–500.CrossRefPubMed Barnes, S., Brown, K. W., Krusemark, E., Campbell, W. K., & Rogge, R. D. (2007). The role of mindfulness in romantic relationship satisfaction and responses to relationship stress. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 482–500.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference *Barnhofer, T., Duggan, D. S., & Griffith, J. W. (2011). Dispositional mindfulness moderates the relation between neuroticism and depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(8), 958–962. *Barnhofer, T., Duggan, D. S., & Griffith, J. W. (2011). Dispositional mindfulness moderates the relation between neuroticism and depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(8), 958–962.
go back to reference Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind: collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind: collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
go back to reference Bergomi, C., Tschacher, W., & Kupper, Z. (2013). The assessment of mindfulness with self-report measures: existing scales and open issues. Mindfulness, 4(3), 191–202.CrossRef Bergomi, C., Tschacher, W., & Kupper, Z. (2013). The assessment of mindfulness with self-report measures: existing scales and open issues. Mindfulness, 4(3), 191–202.CrossRef
go back to reference Birnie, K., Speca, M., & Carlson, L. E. (2010). Exploring self-compassion and empathy in the context of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Stress and Health, 26(5), 359–371.CrossRef Birnie, K., Speca, M., & Carlson, L. E. (2010). Exploring self-compassion and empathy in the context of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Stress and Health, 26(5), 359–371.CrossRef
go back to reference Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., ... & Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230-241. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., ... & Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230-241.
go back to reference Block-Lerner, J., Adair, C., Plumb, J. C., Rhatigan, D. L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2007). The case for mindfulness based approaches in the cultivation of empathy: Does nonjudgmental, present-moment awareness increase capacity for perspective taking and empathic concern? Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 501–516.CrossRefPubMed Block-Lerner, J., Adair, C., Plumb, J. C., Rhatigan, D. L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2007). The case for mindfulness based approaches in the cultivation of empathy: Does nonjudgmental, present-moment awareness increase capacity for perspective taking and empathic concern? Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 501–516.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference *Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848. *Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848.
go back to reference *Brown, K. W., Goodman, R. J., & Inzlicht, M. (2012). Dispositional mindfulness and the attenuation of neural responses to emotional stimuli. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 93–99. *Brown, K. W., Goodman, R. J., & Inzlicht, M. (2012). Dispositional mindfulness and the attenuation of neural responses to emotional stimuli. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 93–99.
go back to reference Buchheld, N., Grossman, P., & Walach, H. (2001). Measuring mindfulness in insight meditation (Vipassana) and meditation-based psychotherapy: the development of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Journal for Meditation and Meditation Research, 1(1), 11–34. Buchheld, N., Grossman, P., & Walach, H. (2001). Measuring mindfulness in insight meditation (Vipassana) and meditation-based psychotherapy: the development of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Journal for Meditation and Meditation Research, 1(1), 11–34.
go back to reference Cardaciotto, L., Herbert, J. D., Forman, E. M., Moitra, E., & Farrow, V. (2008). The assessment of present-moment awareness and acceptance: The Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale. Assessment, 15(2), 204-223. Cardaciotto, L., Herbert, J. D., Forman, E. M., Moitra, E., & Farrow, V. (2008). The assessment of present-moment awareness and acceptance: The Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale. Assessment, 15(2), 204-223.
go back to reference Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulnessbased stress reduction program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31(1), 23–33.CrossRefPubMed Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulnessbased stress reduction program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31(1), 23–33.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Carmody, J., Baer, R.A., LB Lykins, E., & Olendzki, N. (2009). An empirical study of the mechanisms of mindfulness in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(6), 613-626. Carmody, J., Baer, R.A., LB Lykins, E., & Olendzki, N. (2009). An empirical study of the mechanisms of mindfulness in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(6), 613-626.
go back to reference Carson, J. W., Carson, K. M., Gil, K. M., & Baucom, D. H. (2004). Mindfulness-based relationship enhancement. Behavior Therapy, 35(3), 471–494.CrossRef Carson, J. W., Carson, K. M., Gil, K. M., & Baucom, D. H. (2004). Mindfulness-based relationship enhancement. Behavior Therapy, 35(3), 471–494.CrossRef
go back to reference Chadwick, P., Hember, M., Mead, S., Lilley, B., & Dagnan, D. (2005). Responding mindfully to unpleasant thoughts and images: reliability and validity of the Mindfulness Questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript. Chadwick, P., Hember, M., Mead, S., Lilley, B., & Dagnan, D. (2005). Responding mindfully to unpleasant thoughts and images: reliability and validity of the Mindfulness Questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript.
go back to reference Chadwick, P., Hember, M., Symes, J., Peters, E., Kuipers, E., & Dagnan, D. (2008). Responding mindfully to unpleasant thoughts and images: reliability and validity of the Southampton mindfulness questionnaire (SMQ). British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47(4), 451-455. Chadwick, P., Hember, M., Symes, J., Peters, E., Kuipers, E., & Dagnan, D. (2008). Responding mindfully to unpleasant thoughts and images: reliability and validity of the Southampton mindfulness questionnaire (SMQ). British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47(4), 451-455.
go back to reference *Chavers, D. J. (2013). Relationships between spirituality, religiosity, mindfulness, personality, and resilience (Doctoral Dissertation). University of South Alabama, Mobile. *Chavers, D. J. (2013). Relationships between spirituality, religiosity, mindfulness, personality, and resilience (Doctoral Dissertation). University of South Alabama, Mobile.
go back to reference Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2011). Mindfulness-based interventions for chronic pain: a systematic review of the evidence. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(1), 83–93.CrossRefPubMed Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2011). Mindfulness-based interventions for chronic pain: a systematic review of the evidence. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(1), 83–93.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Chiew, K. S., & Braver, T. S. (2011). Positive affect versus reward: emotional and motivational influences on cognitive control. Cognitive and Affective Control, 30, 1–10. Chiew, K. S., & Braver, T. S. (2011). Positive affect versus reward: emotional and motivational influences on cognitive control. Cognitive and Affective Control, 30, 1–10.
go back to reference Coatsworth, J. D., Duncan, L. G., Greenberg, M. T., & Nix, R. L. (2010). Changing parent’s mindfulness, child management skills and relationship quality with their youth: Results from a randomized pilot intervention trial. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(2), 203–217.CrossRefPubMed Coatsworth, J. D., Duncan, L. G., Greenberg, M. T., & Nix, R. L. (2010). Changing parent’s mindfulness, child management skills and relationship quality with their youth: Results from a randomized pilot intervention trial. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(2), 203–217.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Crescentini, C., & Capurso, V. (2015). Mindfulness meditation and explicit and implicit indicators of personality and self-concept changes. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Crescentini, C., & Capurso, V. (2015). Mindfulness meditation and explicit and implicit indicators of personality and self-concept changes. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Davis, K.M., Lau, M.A., & Cairns, D.R. (2009). Development and preliminary validation of a trait version of the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23(3), 185-197. Davis, K.M., Lau, M.A., & Cairns, D.R. (2009). Development and preliminary validation of a trait version of the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23(3), 185-197.
go back to reference Deikman, A. J. (1966). De-automatization and the mystic experience. Psychiatry. Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes, 29(4), 324–338.CrossRef Deikman, A. J. (1966). De-automatization and the mystic experience. Psychiatry. Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes, 29(4), 324–338.CrossRef
go back to reference DeYoung, C. G. (2015). Cybernetic big five theory. Journal of Research in Personality, 56, 33–58.CrossRef DeYoung, C. G. (2015). Cybernetic big five theory. Journal of Research in Personality, 56, 33–58.CrossRef
go back to reference *Earley, M. D. (2011). An internet-based study of associations between personality, spirituality, and trait mindfulness (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, Baltimore County. *Earley, M. D. (2011). An internet-based study of associations between personality, spirituality, and trait mindfulness (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, Baltimore County.
go back to reference Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: a meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 3(3), 174–189.CrossRef Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: a meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 3(3), 174–189.CrossRef
go back to reference *Eisenlohr-Moul, T. A., Walsh, E. C., Charnigo, R. J., Lynam, D. R., & Baer, R. A. (2012). The “what” and the “how” of dispositional mindfulness: using interactions among subscales of the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire to understand its relation to substance use. Assessment, 19(3), 276–86. *Eisenlohr-Moul, T. A., Walsh, E. C., Charnigo, R. J., Lynam, D. R., & Baer, R. A. (2012). The “what” and the “how” of dispositional mindfulness: using interactions among subscales of the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire to understand its relation to substance use. Assessment, 19(3), 276–86.
go back to reference Eysenck, H. J. (1998). Dimensions of personality (Vol. 5). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. Eysenck, H. J. (1998). Dimensions of personality (Vol. 5). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
go back to reference Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., & Laurenceau, J. P. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: The development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29(3), 177. Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., & Laurenceau, J. P. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: The development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29(3), 177.
go back to reference Feldman, G.C., Hayes, A.M., Kumar, S.M., Greeson, J.M., & Laurenceau, J.P. (2004). Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale. Unpublished manuscript. Feldman, G.C., Hayes, A.M., Kumar, S.M., Greeson, J.M., & Laurenceau, J.P. (2004). Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale. Unpublished manuscript.
go back to reference *Feltman, R., Robinson, M. D., & Ode, S. (2009). Mindfulness as a moderator of neuroticism–outcome relations: a self-regulation perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(6), 953–961. *Feltman, R., Robinson, M. D., & Ode, S. (2009). Mindfulness as a moderator of neuroticism–outcome relations: a self-regulation perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(6), 953–961.
go back to reference *Fetterman, A. K., Robinson, M. D., Ode, S., & Gordon, K. H. (2010). Neuroticism as a risk factor for behavioral dysregulation: a mindfulness-mediation perspective. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 29(3), 301–321. *Fetterman, A. K., Robinson, M. D., Ode, S., & Gordon, K. H. (2010). Neuroticism as a risk factor for behavioral dysregulation: a mindfulness-mediation perspective. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 29(3), 301–321.
go back to reference Garland, E. L., Farb, N. A. R., Goldin, P., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2015a). Mindfulness broadens awareness and builds eudaimonic meaning: a process model of mindful positive emotion regulation. Psychological Inquiry, 26(4), 293–314.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Garland, E. L., Farb, N. A. R., Goldin, P., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2015a). Mindfulness broadens awareness and builds eudaimonic meaning: a process model of mindful positive emotion regulation. Psychological Inquiry, 26(4), 293–314.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Giluk, T. L. (2009). Mindfulness, big five personality, and affect: a meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(8), 805–811.CrossRef Giluk, T. L. (2009). Mindfulness, big five personality, and affect: a meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(8), 805–811.CrossRef
go back to reference *Gootzeit, J. H. (2014). ACT process measures: specificity and incremental value (Doctoral Thesis). University of Iowa, Iowa City. *Gootzeit, J. H. (2014). ACT process measures: specificity and incremental value (Doctoral Thesis). University of Iowa, Iowa City.
go back to reference Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: a meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57(1), 35–43.CrossRefPubMed Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: a meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57(1), 35–43.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gu, J., Strauss, C., Crane, C., Barnhofer, T., Karl, A., Cavanagh, K., & Kuyken, W. (2016). Examining the factor structure of the 39-item and 15-item versions of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire before and after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for people with recurrent depression. Psychological Assessment, 28(7), 791–802.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Gu, J., Strauss, C., Crane, C., Barnhofer, T., Karl, A., Cavanagh, K., & Kuyken, W. (2016). Examining the factor structure of the 39-item and 15-item versions of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire before and after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for people with recurrent depression. Psychological Assessment, 28(7), 791–802.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference *Hanley, A. W. (2016). The mindful personality: associations between dispositional mindfulness and the Five Factor Model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 91, 154–158. *Hanley, A. W. (2016). The mindful personality: associations between dispositional mindfulness and the Five Factor Model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 91, 154–158.
go back to reference Hayes, A. M., & Feldman, G. (2004). Clarifying the construct of mindfulness in the context of emotion regulation and the process of change in therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 255–262. Hayes, A. M., & Feldman, G. (2004). Clarifying the construct of mindfulness in the context of emotion regulation and the process of change in therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 255–262.
go back to reference Hayes, S. C., Follette, V. M., & Linehan, M. (2004). Mindfulness and acceptance: expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition. New York: Guilford Press. Hayes, S. C., Follette, V. M., & Linehan, M. (2004). Mindfulness and acceptance: expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(2–3), 61–83.CrossRefPubMed Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(2–3), 61–83.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hill, C. L., & Updegraff, J. A. (2012). Mindfulness and its relationship to emotional regulation. Emotion, 12(1), 81–90.CrossRefPubMed Hill, C. L., & Updegraff, J. A. (2012). Mindfulness and its relationship to emotional regulation. Emotion, 12(1), 81–90.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference *Hollis-Walker, L., & Colosimo, K. (2011). Mindfulness, self-compassion, and happiness in non-meditators: a theoretical and empirical examination. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(2), 222–227. *Hollis-Walker, L., & Colosimo, K. (2011). Mindfulness, self-compassion, and happiness in non-meditators: a theoretical and empirical examination. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(2), 222–227.
go back to reference John, O. P., Naumann, L. P., & Soto, C. J. (2008). Paradigm shift to the integrative Big Five trait taxonomy: history, measurement, and conceptual issues. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: theory and research (pp. 114–158). New York: Guilford Press. John, O. P., Naumann, L. P., & Soto, C. J. (2008). Paradigm shift to the integrative Big Five trait taxonomy: history, measurement, and conceptual issues. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: theory and research (pp. 114–158). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Jones, K. C., Welton, S. R., Oliver, T. C., & Thorburn, J. W. (2011). Mindfulness, spousal attachment, and marital satisfaction: a mediated model. The Family Journal, 19(4), 357–361.CrossRef Jones, K. C., Welton, S. R., Oliver, T. C., & Thorburn, J. W. (2011). Mindfulness, spousal attachment, and marital satisfaction: a mediated model. The Family Journal, 19(4), 357–361.CrossRef
go back to reference Kabat-Zinn, J. (2005). Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness (Fifteenth anniversary ed.). New York: Bantam Dell. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2005). Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness (Fifteenth anniversary ed.). New York: Bantam Dell.
go back to reference *Karakashian, M. (2011). The predictive utility of mindfulness, experiential avoidance and values-based action for well-being in college students (Doctoral Dissertation). The University of Memphis, Memphis. *Karakashian, M. (2011). The predictive utility of mindfulness, experiential avoidance and values-based action for well-being in college students (Doctoral Dissertation). The University of Memphis, Memphis.
go back to reference *Klockner, K., & Hicks, R. (2013). Individual mindfulness, cognitive failures and personality (the Big Five) in a workplace sample. In First International Conference on Mindfulness, Rome (2013, May 8-12). *Klockner, K., & Hicks, R. (2013). Individual mindfulness, cognitive failures and personality (the Big Five) in a workplace sample. In First International Conference on Mindfulness, Rome (2013, May 8-12).
go back to reference *Kong, D. T. (2015). The role of mindfulness and neuroticism in predicting acculturative anxiety forecasting error. Mindfulness, 6(6), 1387–1400. *Kong, D. T. (2015). The role of mindfulness and neuroticism in predicting acculturative anxiety forecasting error. Mindfulness, 6(6), 1387–1400.
go back to reference *Kostanski, M. (2007). The role of mindfulness in reducing stress for pre-service students. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Fremantle. *Kostanski, M. (2007). The role of mindfulness in reducing stress for pre-service students. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Fremantle.
go back to reference *Latzman, R. D., & Masuda, A. (2013). Examining mindfulness and psychological inflexibility within the framework of Big Five personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(2), 129–134. *Latzman, R. D., & Masuda, A. (2013). Examining mindfulness and psychological inflexibility within the framework of Big Five personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(2), 129–134.
go back to reference Li, M. J., Black, D. S., & Garland, E. L. (2016). The Applied Mindfulness Process Scale (AMPS): a process measure for evaluating mindfulness-based interventions. Personality and Individual Differences, 93, 6-15. Li, M. J., Black, D. S., & Garland, E. L. (2016). The Applied Mindfulness Process Scale (AMPS): a process measure for evaluating mindfulness-based interventions. Personality and Individual Differences, 93, 6-15.
go back to reference Lommen, M. J., Engelhard, I. M., & van den Hout, M. A. (2010). Neuroticism and avoidance of ambiguous stimuli: better safe than sorry? Personality and Individual Differences, 49(8), 1001–1006.CrossRef Lommen, M. J., Engelhard, I. M., & van den Hout, M. A. (2010). Neuroticism and avoidance of ambiguous stimuli: better safe than sorry? Personality and Individual Differences, 49(8), 1001–1006.CrossRef
go back to reference Lau, M. A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., ... & Devins, G. (2006). The Toronto mindfulness scale: Development and validation. Journal of clinical psychology, 62(12), 1445-1467. Lau, M. A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., ... & Devins, G. (2006). The Toronto mindfulness scale: Development and validation. Journal of clinical psychology, 62(12), 1445-1467.
go back to reference MacLean, K. A., Johnson, M. W., & Griffiths, R. R. (2011). Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(11), 1453–1461.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral MacLean, K. A., Johnson, M. W., & Griffiths, R. R. (2011). Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(11), 1453–1461.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Macy, J. (1991). Mutual causality in Buddhism and general systems theory: the dharma of natural systems. Albany: SUNY Press. Macy, J. (1991). Mutual causality in Buddhism and general systems theory: the dharma of natural systems. Albany: SUNY Press.
go back to reference *McGarvey, M. K. (2010). Mindfulness practices and emotional development in adult life: a developmental framework for research and teaching (Doctoral Dissertation). Harvard University, Cambridge. *McGarvey, M. K. (2010). Mindfulness practices and emotional development in adult life: a developmental framework for research and teaching (Doctoral Dissertation). Harvard University, Cambridge.
go back to reference Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151(4), 264–269.CrossRefPubMed Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151(4), 264–269.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Moore, A., & Malinowski, P. (2009). Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. Consciousness and Cognition, 18(1), 176-186. Moore, A., & Malinowski, P. (2009). Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. Consciousness and Cognition, 18(1), 176-186.
go back to reference Neff, K. D. (2008). Self-compassion: moving beyond the pitfalls of a separate self-concept. In J. Bauer & H. A. Wayments (Eds.), Transcending self-interest: Psychological explorations of the quiet ego (pp. 95–106). Washington, DC: APA Books.CrossRef Neff, K. D. (2008). Self-compassion: moving beyond the pitfalls of a separate self-concept. In J. Bauer & H. A. Wayments (Eds.), Transcending self-interest: Psychological explorations of the quiet ego (pp. 95–106). Washington, DC: APA Books.CrossRef
go back to reference Neff, K. D., & Germer, C. K. (2013). A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self compassion program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 28–44.CrossRefPubMed Neff, K. D., & Germer, C. K. (2013). A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self compassion program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 28–44.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference *Niemiec, C. P., Brown, K. W., Kashdan, T. B., Cozzolino, P. J., Breen, W. E., Levesque-Bristol, C., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Being present in the face of existential threat: the role of trait mindfulness in reducing defensive responses to mortality salience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(2), 344. *Niemiec, C. P., Brown, K. W., Kashdan, T. B., Cozzolino, P. J., Breen, W. E., Levesque-Bristol, C., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Being present in the face of existential threat: the role of trait mindfulness in reducing defensive responses to mortality salience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(2), 344.
go back to reference *O’Loughlin, R. E., & Zuckerman, M. (2008). Mindfulness as a moderator of the relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone and reported physical symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(5), 1193–1202. *O’Loughlin, R. E., & Zuckerman, M. (2008). Mindfulness as a moderator of the relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone and reported physical symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(5), 1193–1202.
go back to reference *Ortner, C. N., Kilner, S. J., & Zelazo, P. D. (2007). Mindfulness meditation and reduced emotional interference on a cognitive task. Motivation and Emotion, 31(4), 271–283. *Ortner, C. N., Kilner, S. J., & Zelazo, P. D. (2007). Mindfulness meditation and reduced emotional interference on a cognitive task. Motivation and Emotion, 31(4), 271–283.
go back to reference Ozer, D. J., & Benet-Martinez, V. (2006). Personality and the prediction of consequential outcomes. Annual Reviews Psychology, 57, 401–421.CrossRef Ozer, D. J., & Benet-Martinez, V. (2006). Personality and the prediction of consequential outcomes. Annual Reviews Psychology, 57, 401–421.CrossRef
go back to reference Paul-Labrador, M., Polk, D., Dwyer, J. H., Velasquez, I., Nidich, S., Rainforth, M., & Merz, C. N. B. (2006). Effects of a randomized controlled trial of transcendental meditation on components of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with coronary heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(11), 1218–1224.CrossRefPubMed Paul-Labrador, M., Polk, D., Dwyer, J. H., Velasquez, I., Nidich, S., Rainforth, M., & Merz, C. N. B. (2006). Effects of a randomized controlled trial of transcendental meditation on components of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with coronary heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(11), 1218–1224.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference *Philip, A. C. (2010). More than meditation: the role of dispositional mindfulness in alcohol and marijuana-related problems (Doctoral Dissertation), Auburn University, Auburn. *Philip, A. C. (2010). More than meditation: the role of dispositional mindfulness in alcohol and marijuana-related problems (Doctoral Dissertation), Auburn University, Auburn.
go back to reference *Plaut, V. C., & Bartlett III, R. P. (2012). Blind consent? A social psychological investigation of non-readership of click-through agreements. Law and Human Behavior, 36(4), 293. *Plaut, V. C., & Bartlett III, R. P. (2012). Blind consent? A social psychological investigation of non-readership of click-through agreements. Law and Human Behavior, 36(4), 293.
go back to reference Quintana, D. S. (2015). From pre-registration to publication: a non-technical primer for conducting a meta-analysis to synthesize correlational data. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1–9.CrossRef Quintana, D. S. (2015). From pre-registration to publication: a non-technical primer for conducting a meta-analysis to synthesize correlational data. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1–9.CrossRef
go back to reference Rāhula, W. (1974). What the Buddha taught. New York: Grove Press. Rāhula, W. (1974). What the Buddha taught. New York: Grove Press.
go back to reference Rau, H. K., & Williams, P. G. (2016). Dispositional mindfulness: a critical review of construct validation research. Personality and Individual Differences, 93, 32–43.CrossRef Rau, H. K., & Williams, P. G. (2016). Dispositional mindfulness: a critical review of construct validation research. Personality and Individual Differences, 93, 32–43.CrossRef
go back to reference Roberts, B. W., Walton, K. E., & Viechtbauer, W. (2006). Patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132(1), 1–25.CrossRefPubMed Roberts, B. W., Walton, K. E., & Viechtbauer, W. (2006). Patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132(1), 1–25.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Roberts, B. W., Kuncel, N. R., Shiner, R., Caspi, A., & Goldberg, L. R. (2007). The power of personality: the comparative validity of personality traits, socioeconomic status, and cognitive ability for predicting important life outcomes. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2(4), 313–345.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Roberts, B. W., Kuncel, N. R., Shiner, R., Caspi, A., & Goldberg, L. R. (2007). The power of personality: the comparative validity of personality traits, socioeconomic status, and cognitive ability for predicting important life outcomes. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2(4), 313–345.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference *Rush, C. L. (2013). Mindfulness mediates neuroticism as a predictor of self-control and impulsivity: potential implications for behavioral regulation (Master’s Thesis). American University, Washington. *Rush, C. L. (2013). Mindfulness mediates neuroticism as a predictor of self-control and impulsivity: potential implications for behavioral regulation (Master’s Thesis). American University, Washington.
go back to reference *Schnitker, S. A., & Emmons, R. A. (2007). Patience as a virtue: religious and psychological perspectives. In R. L. Piedmont (Ed.), Research in the social scientific study of religion (Vol. 18, pp. 177–208). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers. *Schnitker, S. A., & Emmons, R. A. (2007). Patience as a virtue: religious and psychological perspectives. In R. L. Piedmont (Ed.), Research in the social scientific study of religion (Vol. 18, pp. 177–208). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.
go back to reference *Schurtz, D. R. (2011). Mindfulness as a possible means of coping with envy (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Kentucky, Lexington. *Schurtz, D. R. (2011). Mindfulness as a possible means of coping with envy (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Kentucky, Lexington.
go back to reference *Siegling, A. B., & Petrides, K. V. (2013). Measures of trait mindfulness: convergent validity, shared dimensionality, and linkages to the five-factor model. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1164–1164. *Siegling, A. B., & Petrides, K. V. (2013). Measures of trait mindfulness: convergent validity, shared dimensionality, and linkages to the five-factor model. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1164–1164.
go back to reference Siegling, A. B., & Petrides, K. V. (2016). Zeroing in on mindfulness facets: similarities, validity, and dimensionality across three independent measures. PLOSOne, 11(4), e0153073.CrossRef Siegling, A. B., & Petrides, K. V. (2016). Zeroing in on mindfulness facets: similarities, validity, and dimensionality across three independent measures. PLOSOne, 11(4), e0153073.CrossRef
go back to reference Suls, J., & Martin, R. (2005). The daily life of the garden variety neurotic: reactivity, stressor exposure, mood spillover, and maladaptive coping. Journal of Personality, 73(6), 1485–1510.CrossRefPubMed Suls, J., & Martin, R. (2005). The daily life of the garden variety neurotic: reactivity, stressor exposure, mood spillover, and maladaptive coping. Journal of Personality, 73(6), 1485–1510.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Tang, Y. Y., Hölzel, B. K., & Posner, M. I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(4), 213–225.CrossRefPubMed Tang, Y. Y., Hölzel, B. K., & Posner, M. I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(4), 213–225.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference *Taren, A. A., Creswell, J. D., & Gianaros, P. J. (2013). Dispositional mindfulness co-varies with smaller amygdala and caudate volumes in community adults. PloS One, 8(5), e64574. *Taren, A. A., Creswell, J. D., & Gianaros, P. J. (2013). Dispositional mindfulness co-varies with smaller amygdala and caudate volumes in community adults. PloS One, 8(5), e64574.
go back to reference *Thompson, B. L., & Waltz, J. A. (2008). Mindfulness, self-esteem, and unconditional self-acceptance. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 26(2), 119–126. *Thompson, B. L., & Waltz, J. A. (2008). Mindfulness, self-esteem, and unconditional self-acceptance. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 26(2), 119–126.
go back to reference *Tucker, R. P., O’Keefe, V. M., Cole, A. B., Rhoades-Kerswill, S., Hollingsworth, D. W., Helle, A. C., ... & Wingate, L. R. (2014). Mindfulness tempers the impact of personality on suicidal ideation. Personality and Individual Differences, 68, 229–233. *Tucker, R. P., O’Keefe, V. M., Cole, A. B., Rhoades-Kerswill, S., Hollingsworth, D. W., Helle, A. C., ... & Wingate, L. R. (2014). Mindfulness tempers the impact of personality on suicidal ideation. Personality and Individual Differences, 68, 229–233.
go back to reference Vago, D. R., & Silbersweig, D. A. (2012). Self-awareness, self-regulation, and selftranscendence (S-ART): a framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 1–30.CrossRef Vago, D. R., & Silbersweig, D. A. (2012). Self-awareness, self-regulation, and selftranscendence (S-ART): a framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 1–30.CrossRef
go back to reference van Dam, N. T., Earleywine, M., & Danoff-Burg, S. (2009). Differential item function across meditators and non-meditators on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(5), 516–521.CrossRef van Dam, N. T., Earleywine, M., & Danoff-Burg, S. (2009). Differential item function across meditators and non-meditators on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(5), 516–521.CrossRef
go back to reference van den Hurk, P. A., Wingens, T., Giommi, F., Barendregt, H. P., Speckens, A. E., & van Schie, H. T. (2011). On the relationship between the practice of mindfulness meditation and personality—an exploratory analysis of the mediating role of mindfulness skills. Mindfulness, 2(3), 194–200.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral van den Hurk, P. A., Wingens, T., Giommi, F., Barendregt, H. P., Speckens, A. E., & van Schie, H. T. (2011). On the relationship between the practice of mindfulness meditation and personality—an exploratory analysis of the mediating role of mindfulness skills. Mindfulness, 2(3), 194–200.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference von Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General system theory. New York: Braziller. von Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General system theory. New York: Braziller.
go back to reference Walach, H., Buchheld, N., Buttenmüller, V., Kleinknecht, N., & Schmidt, S. (2006). Measuring mindfulness—the Freiburg mindfulness inventory (FMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 40(8), 1543-1555. Walach, H., Buchheld, N., Buttenmüller, V., Kleinknecht, N., & Schmidt, S. (2006). Measuring mindfulness—the Freiburg mindfulness inventory (FMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 40(8), 1543-1555.
go back to reference *Walsh, J. J., Balint, M. G., Smolira Sj, D. R., Fredericksen, L. K., & Madsen, S. (2009). Predicting individual differences in mindfulness: the role of trait anxiety, attachment anxiety and attentional control. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(2), 94–99. *Walsh, J. J., Balint, M. G., Smolira Sj, D. R., Fredericksen, L. K., & Madsen, S. (2009). Predicting individual differences in mindfulness: the role of trait anxiety, attachment anxiety and attentional control. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(2), 94–99.
go back to reference *Waters, C. G. (2007). Personality and dissociation: evidence from a slide-viewing physiology paradigm (Doctoral Dissertation). North Dakota State University. *Waters, C. G. (2007). Personality and dissociation: evidence from a slide-viewing physiology paradigm (Doctoral Dissertation). North Dakota State University.
go back to reference *Way, B. M., Creswell, J. D., Eisenberger, N. I., & Lieberman, M. D. (2010). Dispositional mindfulness and depressive symptomatology: correlations with limbic and self-referential neural activity during rest. Emotion, 10(1), 12. *Way, B. M., Creswell, J. D., Eisenberger, N. I., & Lieberman, M. D. (2010). Dispositional mindfulness and depressive symptomatology: correlations with limbic and self-referential neural activity during rest. Emotion, 10(1), 12.
go back to reference *Westbrook, M. (2013). The impact of personality, mindfulness, and symptoms on response to brief meditation (Master’s Thesis). Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond. *Westbrook, M. (2013). The impact of personality, mindfulness, and symptoms on response to brief meditation (Master’s Thesis). Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond.
go back to reference Wiener, N. (1948). Cybernetics: control and communication in the animal and the machine. New York: Wiley. Wiener, N. (1948). Cybernetics: control and communication in the animal and the machine. New York: Wiley.
go back to reference *Williams, J. C. (2007). Development of a multifaceted acceptance scale: construction and initial validation (Master’s Thesis). Binghamton University, State University of New York. *Williams, J. C. (2007). Development of a multifaceted acceptance scale: construction and initial validation (Master’s Thesis). Binghamton University, State University of New York.
go back to reference *Wupperman, P., Neumann, C. S., & Axelrod, S. R. (2008). Do deficits in mindfulness underlie borderline personality features and core difficulties?. Journal of Personality Disorders, 22(5), 466–482. *Wupperman, P., Neumann, C. S., & Axelrod, S. R. (2008). Do deficits in mindfulness underlie borderline personality features and core difficulties?. Journal of Personality Disorders, 22(5), 466–482.
go back to reference *Yang, T. (2015). Why and when does a mindfulness intervention promote job performance? The interpersonal mechanisms and individual, job, and social contingencies (Doctoral dissertation), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. *Yang, T. (2015). Why and when does a mindfulness intervention promote job performance? The interpersonal mechanisms and individual, job, and social contingencies (Doctoral dissertation), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
go back to reference *Zabelina, D. L., Robinson, M. D., Ostafin, B. D., & Council, J. R. (2011). Manipulating mindfulness benefits creative elaboration at high levels of neuroticism. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 29(2), 243–255. *Zabelina, D. L., Robinson, M. D., Ostafin, B. D., & Council, J. R. (2011). Manipulating mindfulness benefits creative elaboration at high levels of neuroticism. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 29(2), 243–255.
Metagegevens
Titel
The Mindful Personality: a Meta-analysis from a Cybernetic Perspective
Auteurs
Adam W. Hanley
Eric L. Garland
Publicatiedatum
17-06-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 6/2017
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0736-8

Andere artikelen Uitgave 6/2017

Mindfulness 6/2017 Naar de uitgave

ORTHOGONAL ROTATION IN CONSCIOUSNESS

Supports for Your Practice

ORTHOGONAL ROTATION IN CONSCIOUSNESS

Common Obstacles to Practice