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Factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) were studied in two samples of school children and adolescents (n = 275, 10–12 years and n = 560, 13–16 years) from The Netherlands, using principle factor analysis. In both samples, a single component showed a good fit. However, evidence was also found for a solution with two components in both samples. That is, for children as well as adolescents, a main component referring to “present-moment non-judgmental awareness” arose, but for children a second component of “suppressing or avoiding thoughts and feelings” arose whereas for adolescents “distractibility or difficulty paying attention” became apparent as a second component. The ten-item CAMM showed satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.71 for children, and α = 0.80 for adolescents). As hypothesized, we found significant, moderate to strong positive correlations for the child and adolescent samples between the CAMM and measures of happiness, healthy self-regulation, and quality of life. We further found significant, moderate to strong negative correlations with stress, rumination, self-blame, and catastrophizing. Only the expected positive correlation with acceptance was not found. There was no difference between children with or without meditation experience on the CAMM; however, adolescents with meditation experience showed a significantly lower score on the CAMM than those without this experience. Overall, good psychometric properties were demonstrated and were comparable with the original CAMM. Mindful awareness and being non-judgmental appears a measurable concept in children and adolescents and can be considered an important protective construct in the mental health of not only adults, but also of children and adolescents.
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- The Meaning of Mindfulness in Children and Adolescents: Further Validation of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) in Two Independent Samples from The Netherlands
Esther I. de Bruin
Bonne J. H. Zijlstra
Susan M. Bögels
- Springer US