Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 9/2014

01-09-2014 | Original Paper

The Mandarin Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST): Sex Differences

Auteurs: Xiang Sun, Carrie Allison, Bonnie Auyeung, Fiona E. Matthews, Stephen J. Sharp, Simon Baron-Cohen, Carol Brayne

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 9/2014

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Sex differences in social and communication behaviours related to autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have been investigated mainly in Western populations. Little research has been done in Chinese populations. This study explored sex differences related to ASC characteristics by examining differences in item responses and score distributions in relation to a screening instrument, the Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST), used with Chinese children. A Mandarin Chinese version of the CAST (M-CAST) was distributed to 737 children aged 6–11 years in mainstream schools in Beijing. Questionnaires from 682 (93 %) children were available for analysis. The median score for boys was higher than for girls [boys, median = 8 (IQR 6, 11); girls, median = 7 (IQR 4, 9); p < 0.001]. There were differences in the proportions of boys and girls across all three score groups (≤11, 12–14, ≥15) with more boys being found in the higher score groups (p = 0.035). This finding provides evidence that boys and girls have different social and communication development profiles, consistent with previous findings in Western cultures. These results suggest that sex differences related to ASC are consistent across cultures.
Literatuur
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. DSM-IV-TR Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. DSM-IV-TR Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Auyeung, B., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Allison, C. (2008). The autism spectrum quotient: Children’s version (AQ-child). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(7), 1230–1240. PubMedCrossRef Auyeung, B., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Allison, C. (2008). The autism spectrum quotient: Children’s version (AQ-child). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(7), 1230–1240. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D., et al. (2006). Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: The special needs and autism project (SNAP). Lancet, 368(9531), 210–215. PubMedCrossRef Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D., et al. (2006). Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: The special needs and autism project (SNAP). Lancet, 368(9531), 210–215. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (2002). The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends in cognitive sciences, 6(6), 248–254. PubMedCrossRef Baron-Cohen, S. (2002). The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends in cognitive sciences, 6(6), 248–254. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (2003). Essential difference: Men, women and the extreme male brain. London: Penguin. Baron-Cohen, S. (2003). Essential difference: Men, women and the extreme male brain. London: Penguin.
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Hoekstra, R. A., Knickmeyer, R., & Wheelwright, S. (2006). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ)–adolescent version. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(3), 343–350. PubMedCrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Hoekstra, R. A., Knickmeyer, R., & Wheelwright, S. (2006). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ)–adolescent version. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(3), 343–350. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Knickmeyer, R. C., & Belmonte, M. K. (2005a). Sex differences in the brain: Implications for explaining autism. Science, 310(5749), 819–823. PubMedCrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Knickmeyer, R. C., & Belmonte, M. K. (2005a). Sex differences in the brain: Implications for explaining autism. Science, 310(5749), 819–823. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Knickmeyer, R. C., & Belmonte, M. K. (2005b). Sex differences in the brain: Implications for explaining autism. Science, 310(5749), 819–823. PubMedCrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Knickmeyer, R. C., & Belmonte, M. K. (2005b). Sex differences in the brain: Implications for explaining autism. Science, 310(5749), 819–823. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Lombardo, M. V., Auyeung, B., Ashwin, E., Chakrabarti, B., & Knickmeyer, R. (2011). Why are autism spectrum conditions more prevalent in males? PLoS Biology, 9(6), e1001081. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Lombardo, M. V., Auyeung, B., Ashwin, E., Chakrabarti, B., & Knickmeyer, R. (2011). Why are autism spectrum conditions more prevalent in males? PLoS Biology, 9(6), e1001081. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Richler, J., Bisarya, D., Gurunathan, N., & Wheelwright, S. (2003). The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences, 358(1430), 361–374. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Richler, J., Bisarya, D., Gurunathan, N., & Wheelwright, S. (2003). The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences, 358(1430), 361–374. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Scott, F. J., Allison, C., Williams, J., Bolton, P., Matthews, F. E., et al. (2009). Prevalence of autism-spectrum conditions: UK school-based population study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(6), 500–509. PubMedCrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Scott, F. J., Allison, C., Williams, J., Bolton, P., Matthews, F. E., et al. (2009). Prevalence of autism-spectrum conditions: UK school-based population study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(6), 500–509. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2003). The friendship questionnaire: An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(5), 509–517. PubMedCrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2003). The friendship questionnaire: An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(5), 509–517. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The empathy quotient: An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(2), 163–175. PubMedCrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The empathy quotient: An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(2), 163–175. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5–17. PubMedCrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5–17. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bernier, R., Mao, A., & Yen, J. (2010). Psychopathology, families, and culture: Autism. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 19(4), 855–867. PubMedCrossRef Bernier, R., Mao, A., & Yen, J. (2010). Psychopathology, families, and culture: Autism. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 19(4), 855–867. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Centres of Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders–Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 sites, United States, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries, 61(3), 1–19. Centres of Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders–Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 sites, United States, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries, 61(3), 1–19.
go back to reference Coleman, M. (1978). A report on the autistic syndromes. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment. New York: Plenum Press. Coleman, M. (1978). A report on the autistic syndromes. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment. New York: Plenum Press.
go back to reference Constantino, J. N., Davis, S. A., Todd, R. D., Schindler, M. K., Gross, M. M., Brophy, S. L., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 427–433. PubMedCrossRef Constantino, J. N., Davis, S. A., Todd, R. D., Schindler, M. K., Gross, M. M., Brophy, S. L., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 427–433. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Daley, T. C., & Sigman, M. D. (2002). Diagnostic conceptualization of autism among Indian psychiatrists, psychologists, and paediatricians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(1), 13–23. PubMedCrossRef Daley, T. C., & Sigman, M. D. (2002). Diagnostic conceptualization of autism among Indian psychiatrists, psychologists, and paediatricians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(1), 13–23. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Donaldson, S. O., Elder, J. H., Self, E. H., & Christie, M. B. (2011). Fathers’ perceptions of their roles during in-home training for children with autism. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 24(4), 200–207. PubMedCrossRef Donaldson, S. O., Elder, J. H., Self, E. H., & Christie, M. B. (2011). Fathers’ perceptions of their roles during in-home training for children with autism. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 24(4), 200–207. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fombonne, E. (2005). Epidemiology of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66(10), 3–8. PubMed Fombonne, E. (2005). Epidemiology of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66(10), 3–8. PubMed
go back to reference Gillberg, C., Cederlund, M., Lamberg, K., & Zeijlon, L. (2006). Brief report: “The autism epidemic”. The registered prevalence of autism in a Swedish urban area. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 36(3), 429–435. PubMedCrossRef Gillberg, C., Cederlund, M., Lamberg, K., & Zeijlon, L. (2006). Brief report: “The autism epidemic”. The registered prevalence of autism in a Swedish urban area. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 36(3), 429–435. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gillberg, C., & Coleman, M. (2000). The biology of the autistic syndromes Cambridge. UK: Cambridge University Press. Gillberg, C., & Coleman, M. (2000). The biology of the autistic syndromes Cambridge. UK: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Hartley, S.L., & Sikora, D.M. (2009). sex differences in autism spectrum disorder: An examination of developmental functioning, autistic symptoms, and coexisting behavior problems in toddlers. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 39(12), 1715–1722. Hartley, S.L., & Sikora, D.M. (2009). sex differences in autism spectrum disorder: An examination of developmental functioning, autistic symptoms, and coexisting behavior problems in toddlers. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 39(12), 1715–1722.
go back to reference Holliday-Willey, L. (1999). Pretending to be normal. Living with Asperger’s Syndrome. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Holliday-Willey, L. (1999). Pretending to be normal. Living with Asperger’s Syndrome. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
go back to reference Holtmann, M., Bolte, S., & Poustka, F. (2007). Autism spectrum disorders: Sex differences in autistic behaviour domains and coexisting psychopathology. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49(5), 361–366. PubMedCrossRef Holtmann, M., Bolte, S., & Poustka, F. (2007). Autism spectrum disorders: Sex differences in autistic behaviour domains and coexisting psychopathology. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49(5), 361–366. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kamio, Y. (2007). Early detection of and diagnostic tools for Asperger’s disorder. Nippon Rinsho/Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine, 65(3), 477–480. Kamio, Y. (2007). Early detection of and diagnostic tools for Asperger’s disorder. Nippon Rinsho/Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine, 65(3), 477–480.
go back to reference Knickmeyer, R., Baron-Cohen, S., Raggatt, P., & Taylor, K. (2005). Foetal testosterone, social relationships, and restricted interests in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(2), 198–210. PubMedCrossRef Knickmeyer, R., Baron-Cohen, S., Raggatt, P., & Taylor, K. (2005). Foetal testosterone, social relationships, and restricted interests in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(2), 198–210. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kopp, S., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Girls with social deficits and learning problems: Autism, atypical Asperger syndrome or a variant of these conditions. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1, 89–99. CrossRef Kopp, S., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Girls with social deficits and learning problems: Autism, atypical Asperger syndrome or a variant of these conditions. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1, 89–99. CrossRef
go back to reference Lai, M. C., Lombardo, M. V., Pasco, G., Ruigrok, A. N., Wheelwright, S. J., Sadek, S. A., et al. (2011). A behaviorial comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions. PLoS One, 6(6), e20835. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Lai, M. C., Lombardo, M. V., Pasco, G., Ruigrok, A. N., Wheelwright, S. J., Sadek, S. A., et al. (2011). A behaviorial comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions. PLoS One, 6(6), e20835. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1985). Differences in sex ratios in autism as a function of measured intelligence. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15(2), 185–193. PubMedCrossRef Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1985). Differences in sex ratios in autism as a function of measured intelligence. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15(2), 185–193. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., Schopler, E., & Revicki, D. (1982). Sex differences in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12(4), 317–330. PubMedCrossRef Lord, C., Schopler, E., & Revicki, D. (1982). Sex differences in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12(4), 317–330. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lotter, V. (1966). Epidemiology of autism conditions in young children. Social Psychiatry, 1, 124–135. CrossRef Lotter, V. (1966). Epidemiology of autism conditions in young children. Social Psychiatry, 1, 124–135. CrossRef
go back to reference McCabe, H. (2008). Autism and family in the People’s Republic of China: Learning from Parents’ Perspectives. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 33(1–2), 37–47. CrossRef McCabe, H. (2008). Autism and family in the People’s Republic of China: Learning from Parents’ Perspectives. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 33(1–2), 37–47. CrossRef
go back to reference McLennan, J. D., Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1993). Sex differences in higher functioning people with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23(2), 217–227. PubMedCrossRef McLennan, J. D., Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1993). Sex differences in higher functioning people with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23(2), 217–227. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference National Bureau of Statistics of China (2012). The national statistics on population. National Bureau of Statistics of China (2012). The national statistics on population.
go back to reference Pilowsky, T., Yirmiya, N., Shulman, C., & Dover, R. (1998). The autism diagnostic interview-revised and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale: Differences between diagnostic systems and comparison between genders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28(2), 143–151. PubMedCrossRef Pilowsky, T., Yirmiya, N., Shulman, C., & Dover, R. (1998). The autism diagnostic interview-revised and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale: Differences between diagnostic systems and comparison between genders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28(2), 143–151. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Posserud, M. B., Lundervold, A. J., & Gillberg, C. (2006). Autistic features in a total population of 7–9-year-old children assessed by the ASSQ (Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(2), 167–175. PubMedCrossRef Posserud, M. B., Lundervold, A. J., & Gillberg, C. (2006). Autistic features in a total population of 7–9-year-old children assessed by the ASSQ (Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(2), 167–175. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Scott, F. J., Baron-Cohen, S., Bolton, P., & Brayne, C. (2002a). The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Preliminary development of a UK screen for mainstream primary-school-age children. Autism, 6(1), 9–31. PubMedCrossRef Scott, F. J., Baron-Cohen, S., Bolton, P., & Brayne, C. (2002a). The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Preliminary development of a UK screen for mainstream primary-school-age children. Autism, 6(1), 9–31. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Scott, F. J., Baron-Cohen, S., Bolton, P., & Brayne, C. (2002b). Brief report: Prevalence of autism spectrum conditions in children aged 5–11 years in Cambridgeshire. UK. Autism, 6(3), 231–237. CrossRef Scott, F. J., Baron-Cohen, S., Bolton, P., & Brayne, C. (2002b). Brief report: Prevalence of autism spectrum conditions in children aged 5–11 years in Cambridgeshire. UK. Autism, 6(3), 231–237. CrossRef
go back to reference Sun, X., Allison, C., Auyeung, B., Matthews, E. F., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2013). Brayne, C. A Preliminary Mapping of Service Pathways Social Science and Medicine: Service provision for Autism in Mainland China. Sun, X., Allison, C., Auyeung, B., Matthews, E. F., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2013). Brayne, C. A Preliminary Mapping of Service Pathways Social Science and Medicine: Service provision for Autism in Mainland China.
go back to reference Sun, X., Allison, C., Auyeung, B., Matthews, F. E., Murray, S., Baron-Cohen, S., et al. (2012). Service provision for autism in mainland China: A service providers’ perspective. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(1), 440–451. PubMedCrossRef Sun, X., Allison, C., Auyeung, B., Matthews, F. E., Murray, S., Baron-Cohen, S., et al. (2012). Service provision for autism in mainland China: A service providers’ perspective. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(1), 440–451. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Szatmari, P., Liu, X. Q., Goldberg, J., Zwaigenbaum, L., Paterson, A. D., Woodbury-Smith, M., et al. (2012). Sex differences in repetitive stereotyped behaviours in autism: Implications for genetic liability. American journal of medical genetics Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics: The Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics, 159(1), 5–12. CrossRef Szatmari, P., Liu, X. Q., Goldberg, J., Zwaigenbaum, L., Paterson, A. D., Woodbury-Smith, M., et al. (2012). Sex differences in repetitive stereotyped behaviours in autism: Implications for genetic liability. American journal of medical genetics Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics: The Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics, 159(1), 5–12. CrossRef
go back to reference Volkmar, F. R., Szatmari, P., & Sparrow, S. S. (1993). Sex differences in pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23(4), 579–591. PubMedCrossRef Volkmar, F. R., Szatmari, P., & Sparrow, S. S. (1993). Sex differences in pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23(4), 579–591. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wakabayashi, A., Baron-Cohen, S., Uchiyama, T., Yoshida, Y., Kuroda, M., & Wheelwright, S. (2007). Empathizing and systemizing in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions: Cross-cultural stability. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(10), 1823–1832. PubMedCrossRef Wakabayashi, A., Baron-Cohen, S., Uchiyama, T., Yoshida, Y., Kuroda, M., & Wheelwright, S. (2007). Empathizing and systemizing in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions: Cross-cultural stability. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(10), 1823–1832. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wallis, K. E., & Pinto-Martin, J. (2008). The challenge of screening for autism spectrum disorder in a culturally diverse society. Acta Paediatrica, 97(5), 539–540. PubMedCrossRef Wallis, K. E., & Pinto-Martin, J. (2008). The challenge of screening for autism spectrum disorder in a culturally diverse society. Acta Paediatrica, 97(5), 539–540. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Williams, J. G., Allison, C., Scott, F. J., Bolton, P. F., Baron-Cohen, S., Matthews, F. E., et al. (2008). The childhood autism spectrum test (CAST): Sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(9), 1731–1739. PubMedCrossRef Williams, J. G., Allison, C., Scott, F. J., Bolton, P. F., Baron-Cohen, S., Matthews, F. E., et al. (2008). The childhood autism spectrum test (CAST): Sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(9), 1731–1739. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Williams, J., Scott, F., Stott, C., Allison, C., Bolton, P., Baron-Cohen, S., et al. (2005). The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Test accuracy. Autism, 9(1), 45–68. PubMedCrossRef Williams, J., Scott, F., Stott, C., Allison, C., Bolton, P., Baron-Cohen, S., et al. (2005). The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Test accuracy. Autism, 9(1), 45–68. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wing, L.K. (1976). Early childhood autism. Pergamon: Oxford Wing, L.K. (1976). Early childhood autism. Pergamon: Oxford
go back to reference Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1979). Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9(1), 11–29. PubMedCrossRef Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1979). Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9(1), 11–29. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wolff, S., & McGuire, R. J. (1995). Schizoid personality in girls: A follow-up study–what are the links with Asperger’s syndrome? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36(5), 793–817. PubMedCrossRef Wolff, S., & McGuire, R. J. (1995). Schizoid personality in girls: A follow-up study–what are the links with Asperger’s syndrome? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36(5), 793–817. PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
The Mandarin Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST): Sex Differences
Auteurs
Xiang Sun
Carrie Allison
Bonnie Auyeung
Fiona E. Matthews
Stephen J. Sharp
Simon Baron-Cohen
Carol Brayne
Publicatiedatum
01-09-2014
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 9/2014
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2088-8