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Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research 4/2006

01-08-2006

The Long-Term Stability of Early Maladaptive Schemas

Auteurs: Lawrence P. Riso, Shoshana E. Froman, Mona Raouf, Phillip Gable, Rachel E. Maddux, Noëlle Turini-Santorelli, Suzanne Penna, Jaime A. Blandino, Carli H. Jacobs, Melissa Cherry

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 4/2006

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Abstract

J. E. Young’s (1995) Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS) are assumed to be highly stable and enduring beliefs that are responsible for the persistence and poor treatment response of a variety of clinical problems. EMS are now the basis for a growing number of specialized “schema-focused” treatments. However, the critical assumption that they are stable constructs remains largely unexamined and open to question. This study examined the long-term stability of Young’s EMS in 55 depressed outpatients over a 2.5 to 5-year interval. EMS exhibited moderate to good levels of stability, even after controlling for severity of depression and neuroticism at both time points, and moderate levels of discriminant validity. A comparison of these results with existing literature revealed that the stability and discriminant validity of EMS are quite similar to the stability and discriminant validity of personality disorder features. Additional work is needed to examine the stability of EMS across greater fluctuations in mood and in different clinical populations. Our findings for the stability of EMS may be generalizable to the more general notion of core beliefs. Future work needs to focus on further theoretical development and improved measurement of EMS.
Voetnoten
1
Given the range of follow-up intervals for our participants, it is important to consider whether the time to follow-up affected the size of the stability correlations. To address this question, we examined whether the length of the follow-up interval moderated the stability correlations for total scores on the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ; Young, 1995; described more fully in the Method section). In multiple regression equations, total YSQ scores at follow-up were used as the dependent variable with baseline total YSQ, follow-up interval, and their interaction entered as predictors. The interaction term was not significant (β=.075, ns) suggesting that the follow-up interval was not a moderator. Therefore, all participants were analyzed together despite some differences in their follow-up intervals.
 
2
A multiple regression was performed to examine whether months of psychotherapy served as a moderator of stability. Paralleling the analysis of the follow-up interval as a moderator, total YSQ served as the dependent variable with baseline total YSQ, months of psychotherapy, and their interaction entered as predictors. As with the analysis of time to follow-up, the interaction term was not significant (β=.003, ns) and so months of psychotherapy was not a moderator of stability.
 
3
Several patients had achieved remission during the follow-up period but then met full threshold for a depressive disorder again when they were assessed at follow-up. These patients were not counted as remitted.
 
4
Using the five higher order schema clusters of the YSQ (i.e., Disconnection and Rejection, Impaired Autonomy, Other Directedness, Impaired Limits, and Overvigilance) did not improve the discriminant validity of EMS over that using individual schemas (data available upon request).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
The Long-Term Stability of Early Maladaptive Schemas
Auteurs
Lawrence P. Riso
Shoshana E. Froman
Mona Raouf
Phillip Gable
Rachel E. Maddux
Noëlle Turini-Santorelli
Suzanne Penna
Jaime A. Blandino
Carli H. Jacobs
Melissa Cherry
Publicatiedatum
01-08-2006
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 4/2006
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9015-z

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