Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Discrimination is commonly experienced among adolescents. However, little is known about the intersection of multiple attributes of discrimination and bullying. We used a latent class analysis (LCA) to illustrate the intersections of discrimination attributes and bullying, and to assess the associations of LCA membership to depressive symptoms, deliberate self harm and suicidal ideation among a sample of ethnically diverse adolescents. The data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey where students were asked whether they had experienced discrimination based on four attributes: race/ethnicity, immigration status, perceived sexual orientation and weight. They were also asked whether they had been bullied or assaulted for these attributes. A total of 965 (78 %) students contributed to the LCA analytic sample (45 % Non-Hispanic Black, 29 % Hispanic, 58 % Female). The LCA revealed that a 4-class solution had adequate relative and absolute fit. The 4-classes were characterized as: low discrimination (51 %); racial discrimination (33 %); sexual orientation discrimination (7 %); racial and weight discrimination with high bullying (intersectional class) (7 %). In multivariate models, compared to the low discrimination class, individuals in the sexual orientation discrimination class and the intersectional class had higher odds of engaging in deliberate self-harm. Students in the intersectional class also had higher odds of suicidal ideation. All three discrimination latent classes had significantly higher depressive symptoms compared to the low discrimination class. Multiple attributes of discrimination and bullying co-occur among adolescents. Research should consider the co-occurrence of bullying and discrimination.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Agresti, A. (2002). Categorical data analysis: Wiley series in probability and statistics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. CrossRef
Ali, R. (2010). Dear colleague letter: Harassment and bullying. Retrieved October 26, 2010, from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/dcl-factsheet-201010.pdf.
Andersen, M. L., & Collins, P. H. (2010). Why race, class, and gender still matter. In M. L. Andersen & P. H. Collins (Eds.), Race, class, and gender: An anthology (7th ed., pp. 1–16). Belmont, GA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2008). Multilevel mixture models. In G. R. Hancock & K. M. Samuelsen (Eds.), Advances in latent variable mixture models (pp. 27–51). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
Bosworth, K., Espelage, D. L., & Simon, T. R. (1999). Factors associated with bullying behavior in middle school students. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 19(3), 341–362. CrossRef
Bradshaw, C. P., & Johnson, R. M. (2011). The social context of bullying and peer victimization: An introduction to the special issue. Journal of School Violence, 10(2), 107–114. CrossRef
CDC. (2009). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey Overview.
CDC. (2011). Youth Risk Behavior Survey Fact Sheets. National Results Overview, 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/yrbs/factsheets/index.htm-national. Accessed September 2012.
CDC. (2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about BMI for children and teens. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/childrens_bmi/about_childrens_bmi.html. Accessed September 2011.
Chung, H., Flaherty, B. P., & Schafer, J. L. (2006). Latent class logistic regression: Application to marijuana use and attitudes among high school seniors. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 169(4), 723–743. CrossRef
Clark, S., & Muthén, B. (2009). Relating latent class analysis results to variables not included in the analysis. http://www.statmodel.com.
Collins, L. M., & Lanza, S. T. (2009). Latent class and latent transition analysis: With applications in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Hoboken: Wiley. CrossRef
Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A Black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. The University of Chicago Legal Forum, 140, 139–167.
Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241–1299.
Crocker, J., Voelkl, K., Testa, M., & Major, B. (1991). Social stigma: The affective consequences of attributional ambiguity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(2), 218–228. CrossRef
Dahlberg, L. L., Toal, S. B., Swahn, M., & Behrens, C. B. (2005). Measuring violence-related attitudes, behaviors, and influences among youths: A compendium of assessment tools (2nd ed.). Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.
Daley, A., Solomon, S., Newman, P. A., & Mishna, F. (2006). Traversing the margins: Intersectionalities in the bullying of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services: Issues in Practice, Policy and Research, 19(3–4), 9–29. doi: 10.1080/10538720802161474.
Diaz, E. M., & Kosciw, J. G. (2009). Shared differences: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students of color in our nation’s schools. New York: GLSEN.
Dunn, E. C., Johnson, R. M., & Green, J. G. (2012). The Modified Depression Scale (MDS): A brief, no-cost assessment tool to estimate the level of depressive symptoms in students and schools. School Mental Health, 4(1), 1–12.
Edwards, M. C., Green, C., & Perkins, U. E. (2006). Teen dating violence, ethnic identity and depression in inner city African American youths and young adults. Journal of Knowledge and Best Practice in Juvenile Justice and Psychology, 1(1), 41–50.
Espelage, D. L., Aragon, S. R., Birkett, M., & Koenig, B. W. (2008). Homophobic teasing, psychological outcomes, and sexual orientation among high school students: What influence do parents and schools have? School Psychology Review, 37(2), 202.
Gulemetova, M., Drury, D., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2011). Findings from the National Education Association’s nationwide study of bullying: Teachers’ and education support professionals’ perspectives. Paper presented at the White House Conference on Bullying Prevention, Washington, DC.
Hertz, M. F., Donato, I., & Wright, J. (2013). Bullying and suicide: A public health approach. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(1, Supplement), S1–S3. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.05.002.
Hong, J. S., & Espelage, D. L. (2012). A review of research on bullying and peer victimization in school: An ecological system analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(4), 311–312.
Jung, T., & Wickrama, K. (2008). An introduction to latent class growth analysis and growth mixture modeling. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(1), 302–317. CrossRef
Kosciw, J. G., Greytak, E. A., Bartkiewicz, M. J., Boesen, M. J., & Palmer, N. A. (2012). The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: GLSEN.
Lanza, S. T., & Rhoades, B. L. (2011). Latent class analysis: An alternative perspective on subgroup analysis in prevention and treatment. Prevention Science, 14(2), 1–12.
LeVasseur, M. T., Kelvin, E. A., & Grosskopf, N. A. (2013). Intersecting identities and the association between bullying and suicide attempt among New York City youths: Results from the 2009 New York City youth risk behavior survey. American Journal of Public Health, 103(6), 1082–1089. PubMedCrossRef
Lo, Y., Mendell, N. R., & Rubin, D. B. (2001). Testing the number of components in a normal mixture. Biometrika, 88(3), 767–778. CrossRef
Marr, N., & Field, T. (2001). Bullycide: Death at playtime. Oxfordshire: Success Unlimited.
Masyn, K. (2012). Latent class analysis and finite mixture modeling. In T. Little (Ed.), Oxford handbook of quantitative methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Miniño, A. (2010). Mortality among teenagers 12–19 years: United States, 1999–2006. NCHS data brief, no 37. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Muthén, B. O. (2002). Beyond SEM: General latent variable modeling. Behaviormetrika, 29(1; ISSU 51), 81–118.
Nagin, D. (2005). Group-based modeling of development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(16), 2094. CrossRef
Poteat, V. P., & Espelage, D. L. (2007). Predicting psychosocial consequences of homophobic victimization in middle school students. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 27(2), 175–191. CrossRef
Poteat, V. P., Mereish, E. H., DiGiovanni, C. D., & Koenig, B. W. (2011). The effects of general and homophobic victimization on adolescents’ psychosocial and educational concerns: The importance of intersecting identities and parent support. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(4), 597. PubMedCrossRef
Pritchard, E. D. (2013). For colored kids who committed suicide, our outrage isn’t enough: Queer youth of color, bullying, and the discursive limits of identity and safety. Harvard Educational Review, 83(2), 320–345.
Puhl, R., & Heuer, C. A. (2010). Obesity stigma: Important considerations for public health. Journal Information, 100(6), 1019–1028.
Reboussin, B. A., Ip, E. H., & Wolfson, M. (2008). Locally dependent latent class models with covariates: An application to under-age drinking in the USA. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 171(4), 877–897. CrossRef
Rivers, I., Poteat, V. P., Noret, N., & Ashurst, N. (2009). Observing bullying at school: The mental health implications of witness status. School Psychology Quarterly, 24(4), 211. CrossRef
Rosenbloom, S. R., & Way, N. (2004). Experiences of discrimination among African American, Asian American, and Latino adolescents in an urban high school. Youth and Society, 35(4), 420–451. CrossRef
Sellers, R. M., Copeland-Linder, N., Martin, P. P., & Lewis, R. L. H. (2006). Racial identity matters: The relationship between racial discrimination and psychological functioning in African American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16(2), 187–216. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2006.00128.x. CrossRef
Stuart-Cassel, V., Bell, A., & Springer, J. F. (2011). Analysis of state bullying laws and policies. Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, US Department of Education, 202, 1–202.
Swearer, S. M., Turner, R. K., Givens, J. E., & Pollack, W. S. (2008). “You’re So Gay!”: Do different forms of bullying matter for adolescent males? School Psychology Review, 37(2), 160.
Vaillancourt, T., McDougall, P., Hymel, S., Krygsman, A., Miller, J., Stiver, K., et al. (2008). Bullying: Are researchers and children/youth talking about the same thing? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32(6), 486–495. CrossRef
Vaillancourt, T., Trinh, V., McDougall, P., Duku, E., Cunningham, L., Cunningham, C., et al. (2010). Optimizing population screening of bullying in school-aged children. Journal of School Violence, 9(3), 233–250. CrossRef
Vermunt, J. K., & Magidson, J. (2005). Technical guide for Latent GOLD 4.0: Basic and advanced. Belmont, MA: Statistical Innovations.
Williams, D., Yu, Y., Jackson, J., & Anderson, N. (1997). Racial differences in physical and mental health. Journal of Health Psychology, 3(2), 335–351. CrossRef
- The Intersectionality of Discrimination Attributes and Bullying Among Youth: An Applied Latent Class Analysis
Bernice Raveche Garnett
Katherine E. Masyn
S. Bryn Austin
David R. Williams
- Springer US