Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The majority of studies examining mental health outcomes among the offspring of depressed individuals have only examined the influence of mothers. We examined the influence of maternal and paternal depression on rates of offspring depression [major depressive disorder (MDD)], anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder), and substance use disorder (alcohol abuse and dependence, substance abuse and dependence). Diagnostic interviews conducted with 220 offspring of both high and low risk parents (high risk defined as having a biological parent with MDD) were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. We also conducted exploratory analyses examining how maternal and paternal depression influenced age of disorder onset among offspring. For offspring depression and anxiety, the effect of having a father with depression paralleled the effect of having a mother with depression. Maternal MDD resulted in lower levels of offspring functioning when compared to offspring of non-depressed mothers. Maternal MDD also resulted in an earlier age of onset among offspring. Clinical attention to both maternal and paternal depression through family intervention is warranted and prevention efforts would be the most fruitful if offered no later than middle childhood.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Beardslee, W. R., Gladstone, T. R. G., & Forbes, P. (2007). Long-term effects from a randomized trial of two public health preventive interventions for parental depression. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 703–713. CrossRef
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1998). The development of depression in children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 53, 221–241.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cox, D. R. (1972). Regression models and life-tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 34, 1972.
Cox, D. R., & Oakes, D. (1984). Analysis of survival data. New York, New York: Chapman and Hall.
England, M. J., & Sim, L. J. (2009). Depression in parents, parenting, and children: Opportunities to improve identification, treatment, and prevention. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Evans, D. L., Foa, E. B., Gur, R. E., Hendin, H., O’Brien, C. P., Seligman, M. E. P., et al. (2005). Treating and preventing adolescent mental health disorders: What we know and what we don’t know: A research agenda for improving the mental health of our youth. NewYork: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Jacob, T., & Johnson, S. L. (1997). Parent–child interaction among depressed fathers and mothers: Impact on child functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 11, 391–409. CrossRef
Kane, P., & Garber, J. (2009). Parental depression and child externalizing and internalizing symptoms: Unique effects of fathers’ symptoms and perceived conflict as a mediator. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 465–472. CrossRef
Lin, D. Y., & Wei, L. J. (1989). The robust inteference for the Cox proportional hazards model. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 84, 1074–1078. CrossRef
Rohde, P., Lewinsohn, P. M., Klein, D. N., & Seeley, J. R. (2005). Association of parental depression with psychiatric course from adolescence to young adulthood among formerly depressed individuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 11, 409–420. CrossRef
Scourfield, J., Rice, F., Thapar, A., Harold, G. T., Martin, N., & McGuffin, P. (2003). Depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: Changing aetiological influences with development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 44, 968–976. CrossRef
Tompson, M. C., Pierre, C. B., Boger, K. D., McKowen, J. W., Chan, P. T., & Freed, R. D. (2010). Maternal depression, maternal expressed emotion, and youth psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal and Child Psychology, 38, 105–117. CrossRef
Weissman, M. M., Wickramaratne, P., Pilowsky, D. J., Poh, E., Hernandez, M., Batten, L. A., et al. (2014). The effects on children of depressed mothers’ remission and relapse over 9 months. Psychological Medicine, 44(13), 2811–2824.
- The Influence of Paternal and Maternal Major Depressive Disorder on Offspring Psychiatric Disorders
Rachel H. Jacobs
- Springer US