According to family investment theory, a family’s socio-economic status can have a noteworthy impact on the academic performance and future lives of adolescents. However, the mechanism for this remains poorly understood. We examined the mediating and moderating effects of family emotional and cultural environment on the relations between family socio-economic status and learning burnout. Specifically, we investigated whether different family emotional environments have a moderating effect on the relationship between family socio-economic status and learning burnout and on the mediating effect of family cultural environment. A sample of 1181 junior and senior high school students completed multidimensional measures of family socioeconomic status, family emotional and cultural environment, and learning burnout. A regression analysis showed that socio-economic status significantly predicted learning burnout. The achievement, cultural, and recreational dimensions of family cultural environment were all mediators of this relationship. Moreover, cultural dimension was moderated by the family conflicts factor of family emotional environment.