There is mixed evidence regarding the relationship between different types of stress and outcomes in adults with diabetes. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between daily stress and glycemic control (HbA1c), and to examine whether multiple daily stressors is associated with early mortality among individuals with diabetes. This was a cross-sectional analysis of national Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study data. A total of 141 adults with diabetes completed the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE) project during the initial phase of the study, which was summarized through a series of measures about daily stress frequency, type and impact. General linear models investigated the relationship between daily stress and HbA1c. Kaplan–Meier curves based on national death index information linked to MIDUS were investigated for individuals reporting no/one stressor per week versus multiple stressors per week. On average, this population of adults with diabetes reported 3.1 days with a stressor and 2.45 stressor types per week. No significant relationships existed between glycemic control and frequency of daily stress. Higher stress from work was associated with higher HbA1c (β = 0.65, 95% CI 0.08, 1.22) and higher perceived risk of stress influencing physical health was associated with higher HbA1c (β = 0.60, 95% CI 0.01, 1.20). In conclusion, while many ways of measuring daily stress were shown not to have a significant influence on glycemic control, daily stress related to work and the perceived risk of stress influencing one’s physical health may influence outcomes for adults with diabetes. Interventions incorporating stress management, and in particular coping with the risk that stress has on health may help adults with diabetes better manage glycemic control over time.