Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10567-015-0191-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Children of mentally ill parents are at high risk of developing problems themselves. They are often identified and approached as a homogeneous group, despite diversity in parental diagnoses. Some studies demonstrate evidence for transgenerational equifinality (children of parents with various disorders are at risk of similar problems) and multifinality (children are at risk of a broad spectrum of problems). At the same time, other studies indicate transgenerational specificity (child problems are specifically related to the parent’s diagnosis) and concordance (children are mainly at risk of the same disorder as their parent). Better insight into the similarities and differences between children of parents with various mental disorders is needed and may inform the development and evaluation of future preventive interventions for children and their families. Accordingly, we systematically compared 76 studies on diagnoses in children of parents with the most prevalent axis I disorders: unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorders. Methodological characteristics of the studies were compared, and outcomes were analyzed for the presence of transgenerational equifinality, multifinality, specificity, and concordance. Also, the strengths of the relationships between child and parent diagnoses were investigated. This review showed that multifinality and equifinality appear to be more of a characteristic of children of unipolar and bipolar parents than of children of anxious parents, whose risk is mainly restricted to developing anxiety disorders. For all children, risk transmission is assumed to be partly specific since the studies indicate a strong tendency for children to develop the same disorder as their parent.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Bassani, D. G., Padoin, C. V., & Veldhuizen, S. (2008). Counting children at risk: Exploring a method to estimate the number of children exposed to parental mental illness using adult health survey data. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,43(11), 927–935. doi: 10.1007/s00127-008-0376-3. CrossRefPubMed
Beardslee, W. R., Gladstone, T. R., & O’Connor, E. E. (2011). Transmission and prevention of mood disorders among children of affectively ill parents: A review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,50(11), 1098–1109. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2011.07.020. CrossRefPubMed
Beardslee, W. R., Keller, M. B., Lavori, P. W., Staley, J. E., et al. (1993). The impact of parental affective disorder on depression in offspring: A longitudinal follow-up in a nonreferred sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,32(4), 723–730. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199307000-00004. CrossRefPubMed
*Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Friedman, D., Robin, J. A., & Rosenbaum, J. F. (2001). Patterns of psychopathology and dysfunction in high-risk children of parents with panic disorder and major depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry,158(1), 49–57. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.158.1.49. CrossRefPubMed
*Birmaher, B., Axelson, D., Monk, K., Kalas, C., Goldstein, B., Hickey, M. B., et al. (2009). Lifetime psychiatric disorders in school-aged offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: The Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring study. Archives of General Psychiatry,66(3), 287–296. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.546. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
Bool, M., Van der Zanden, R., & Smit, F. (2007). Factsheet preventie: Kinderen van ouders met psychische problemen (Prevention factsheet: Children of mentally ill parents). Utrecht: Trimbos Instituut.
Campbell, S. B., Brownell, C. A., Hungerford, A., Spieker, S. J., Mohan, R., & Blessing, J. S. (2004). The course of maternal depressive symptoms and maternal sensitivity as predictors of attachment security at 36 months. Development and Psychopathology,16(2), 231–252. doi: 10.1017/S0954579404044499. CrossRefPubMed
Compton, W. M., Thomas, Y. F., Stinson, F. S., & Grant, B. F. (2007). Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV drug abuse and dependence in the United States: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry,64(5), 566–576. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.64.5.566. CrossRefPubMed
Conway, K. P., Compton, W., Stinson, F. S., & Grant, B. F. (2006). Lifetime comorbidity of DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders and specific drug use disorders: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry,67(2), 247–257. CrossRefPubMed
Foster, C. E., Webster, M. C., Weissman, M. M., Pilowsky, D. J., Wickramaratne, P. J., Rush, A., et al. (2008). Course and severity of maternal depression: Associations with family functioning and child adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,37(8), 906–916. doi: 10.1007/s10964-007-9216-0. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
Higgins, J. P. T., & Green, S. (2011). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration.
*Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Biederman, J., Henin, A., Faraone, S. V., Dowd, S. T., De Petrillo, L. A., et al. (2006). Psychopathology in the young offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: A controlled pilot study. Psychiatry Research,145(2–3), 155–167. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2005.08.026. CrossRefPubMed
Hosman, C. M., Van Doesum, K. T., & Van Santvoort, F. (2009). Prevention of emotional problems and psychiatric risks in children of parents with a mental illness in the Netherlands: I. Scientific basis of a comprehensive approach. Advances in Mental Health,8(3), 250–263. CrossRef
Leverton, T. J. (2003). Parental psychiatric illness: The implications for children. Current Opinion in Psychiatry,16(4), 395–402. doi: 10.1097/00001504-200307000-00005.
Reupert, A., Cuff, R., Drost, L., Foster, K., Van Doesum, K. T., & Van Santvoort, F. (2012). Intervention programs for children whose parents have a mental illness: A review. Medical Journal of Australia (MJA Open),1(Suppl 1), 18–22.
Solantaus, T., & Toikka, S. (2006). The effective family programme: Preventative services for the children of mentally ill parents in Finland. The International Journal of Mental Health Promotion,8(3), 37–44. CrossRef
Van Doesum, K. T., & Hosman, C. M. (2009). Prevention of emotional problems and psychiatric risks in children of parents with a mental illness in the Netherlands: II. Interventions. Advances in Mental Health,8(3), 264–276. CrossRef
WHO. (2001). The world health report 2001: Mental health: New understanding, new hope. Geneva: World Health Organization.
- The Impact of Various Parental Mental Disorders on Children’s Diagnoses: A Systematic Review
Floor van Santvoort
Clemens M. H. Hosman
Jan M. A. M. Janssens
Karin T. M. van Doesum
Linda M. A. van Loon
- Springer US