Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The goal of the study was to investigate whether task rules are automatically applied to irrelevant distracters. In three experiments, subjects categorized target words which were superimposed on distracter pictures. The categorization rule was arbitrary and the distracters were not relevant at any point during the experiment. We found congruency effects for distracters that belonged to the task-relevant categories, but were never presented as target words. Responses were faster when target and distracter belonged to the same category, i.e., were mapped to the same response, than when they were mapped to different responses. Since the distracters were never responded to in the course of the experiment, interference caused by retrieval of S-R episodes cannot explain the results. Instead, we propose that even arbitrary categorization rules are applied to all suitable stimuli, including distracters. Results are taken as evidence that a currently relevant task rule enhances processing of target-related information thereby increasing interference by task related, but currently irrelevant information.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Ach, N. (2006). On volition (T.Herz, Trans.). (Original work published 1910) Retrieved March 28, 2011, from Univerity of Konstanz, Cognitive Psychology Web site: http://www.uni-konstanz.de/kogpsych/ach.htm.
Cohen-Kdoshay, O., & Meiran, N. (2007). The representation of instructions in working memory leads to autonomous response activation: evidence from the first trials in the flanker paradigm. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60(8), 1140–1154. PubMed
Frings, C., Möller, B., & Rothermund, K. (2011). The croaking frog: retrieval of event files can be conceptually mediated (submitted).
Glaser, W. R., & Glaser, M. O. (1989). Context effects in stroop-like word and picture processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118(1), 13–42. CrossRef
Hommel, B. (1998). Event files: evidence for automatic integration of stimulus-response episodes. Visual Cognition, 5(1), 183–216. CrossRef
Hommel, B. (2000). The prepared reflex—automaticity and control in stimulus-response translation. In S. Monsell & J. Driver (Eds.), Control of cognitive processes: attention and performance XVIII (pp. 247–273). Cambridge: MIT Press.
Jentzsch, I., & Dudschig, C. (2009). Why do we slow down after an error? Mechanisms underlying the effects of posterror slowing. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62(2), 209–218. CrossRef
Logan, G. D. (1988). Toward an instance theory of automatization. Psychological Review, 95(4), 492–527. CrossRef
Pratt, J., & McAuliffe, J. (2002). Determining whether attentional control settings are inclusive or exclusive. Perception & Psychophysics, 64(8), 1361–1370. CrossRef
Remington, R. W., Folk, C. L., & McLean, J. P. (2001). Contingent attentional capture or delayed allocation of attention? Perception & Psychophysics, 63(2), 298–307. CrossRef
Smith, M. C., & Magee, L. E. (1980). Tracing the time course of picture-word processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 109(4), 373–392. CrossRef
Snodgrass, J. G., & Vanderwart, M. (1980). A standardized set of 260 pictures: norms for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6(2), 174–215. CrossRef
Tryon, W. W. (2001). Evaluating statistical difference, equivalence, and indeterminancy using inferential confidence intervals: an integrated alternative method of conducting null hypothesis statistical tests. Psychological Methods, 6(4), 371–386.
Woodworth, R. S. (1938). Experimental psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
- The impact of task rules on distracter processing: automatic categorization of irrelevant stimuli