Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The existing research on risk factors for adolescent substance use highlights the importance of peers’ direct influence on risky behaviors, yet two key limitations persist. First, there is considerably less attention to the ways in which peers shape overall (e.g., school-level) normative climates of attitudes and expectations about substance use, and, second, the role of the broader geographic contexts in which these climates are embedded is essentially neglected. In light of shifting trends in geographic differences in adolescent substance use, the current study uses data from the 2007 Nebraska Risk and Protective Factor Student Survey (n = 26,647; 80 % non-Hispanic White; 51 % female) to (a) explore whether geographic context shapes the character (permissiveness) and consistency (homogeneity) of normative climates and (b) examine the consequences (effects) of such climates on adolescent substance use risk across the rural–urban continuum. Normative climates are a consistent predictor of substance use, yet the geographic context in which schools are located matters for both the nature and influence of these climates, and the patterns differ between normative climates about alcohol and marijuana. These findings illustrate that school normative climates do indeed matter for substance use behavior, and the ways in which they do depend on their broader, geographic context. Thus, future research on youth’s substance use should be attuned to these more nuanced distinctions.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social change. New Jersey: Prentice-Hill.
Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence, and moral life of the inner city. New York: Norton.
Atav, S., & Spencer, G. A. (2002). Health risk behaviors among adolescents attending rural, suburban, and urban schools: A comparative study. Family & Community Health,25(2), 53–64. CrossRef
Beggs, J. J., Haines, V. A., & Hurlbert, J. S. (1996). Revisiting the rural–urban contrast: Personal networks in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan settings. Rural Sociology,61(2), 306–325. CrossRef
Bonell, C., Fletcher, A., Jamal, F., Wells, H., Harden, A., Murphy, S., et al. (2013). Theories of how the school environment impacts on student health: Systematic review and synthesis. Health & Place,24, 242–249. CrossRef
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Butler, A. C. (2005). Gender differences in the prevalence of same-sex sexual partnering: 1988–2002. Social Forces,84(1), 417–446. CrossRef
Crockett, L. J., Shanahan, M. J., & Jackson-Newsom, J. (2000). Rural youth: Ecological and life course perspectives. In R. Montemayor, G. R. Adams, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Adolescent diversity in ethnic, economic, and cultural contexts: Advances in adolescent development (Vol. 10, pp. 43–74). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. CrossRef
de la Haye, K., Green, H. D., Kennedy, D. P., Pollard, M. S., & Tucker, J. S. (2013). Selection and influence mechanisms associated with marijuana initiation and use in adolescent friendship networks. Journal of Research on Adolescence,23(3), 474–486. CrossRef
Edwards, R. W., Stanley, L. R., Marquart, B. S., & Swaim, R. C. (2011). Adolescent substance use in rural and small urban communities. Journal of Rural Community Psychology, E14(1), 1–12.
Flay, B. R. (1999). Understanding environmental, situational and intrapersonal risk and protective factors for youth tobacco use: The Theory of Triadic Influence. Nicotine & Tobacco Research,1(Suppl 2), S111–S114. CrossRef
Fordham, S., & Ogbu, J. U. (1986). Black students’ school success: Coping with the “burden of ‘acting white’”. The Urban Review,18(3), 176–206. CrossRef
Gale, J. A., Lenardson, J. D., Lambert, D., & Hartley, D. (2012). Adolescent alcohol use: Do risk and protective factors explain rural–urban differences. Maine Rural Health Research Centers Working Paper #48. University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Rural Health Research and Policy Centers.
Gardner, L., & Shoemaker, D. J. (1989). Social bonding and delinquency: A comparative analysis. The Sociological Quarterly,30(3), 481–500. CrossRef
Garnier, H. E., & Stein, J. A. (2002). An 18-year model of family and peer effects on adolescent drug use and delinquency. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,31(1), 45–56. CrossRef
Gfroerer, J. C., Larson, S. L., & Colliver, J. D. (2007). Drug use patterns and trends in rural communities. Epidemiology and Etiology of Drug Use,23, 10–15.
Giordano, P. C. (2003). Relationships in adolescence. Annual Review of Sociology,29, 257–281. CrossRef
Harding, D. J. (2007). Cultural context, sexual behavior, and romantic relationships in disadvantaged neighborhoods. American Sociological Review,72, 341–364. CrossRef
Jensen, L., McLaughlin, D. K., & Slack, T. (2003). Rural poverty: The persisting challenge. In D. L. Brown & L. E. Swanson (Eds.), Challenges for rural America in the twenty-first century (pp. 118–131). University Park, PA: Penn State University Press.
Leifheit, K. M., Parekh, J., Matson, P. A., Moulton, L. H., Ellen, J. M., & Jennings, J. M. (2015). Is the association between neighborhood drug prevalence and marijuana use independent of peer drug and alcohol norms? Results from a household survey of urban youth. Journal of Urban Health,92(4), 773–783. CrossRefPubMed
Lichter, D. T., & Brown, D. L. (2011). Rural America in an urban society: Changing spatial and social boundaries. Annual Review of Sociology,37, 565–592. CrossRef
Mason, W. A., & Windle, M. (2001). Family, religious, school, and peer influences on adolescent alcohol use: A longitudinal study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs,62(1), 44–53. CrossRef
Maxwell, K. A. (2002). Friends: The role of peer influence across adolescent risk behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,31(4), 267–277. CrossRef
Mennis, J., & Mason, M. J. (2011). People, places, and adolescent substance use: Integrating activity space and social network data for analyzing health behavior. Annals of the Association of American Geographers,101(2), 272–291. CrossRef
Miech, R. A., Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2015). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2014: Volume 1, Secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute of Social Research, The University of Michigan. http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs.html#monographs.
Payne, D. C., & Cornwell, B. (2007). Reconsidering peer influences on delinquency: Do less proximate contacts matter? Journal of Quantitative Criminology,23(2), 127–149. CrossRef
Rhew, I. C., Hawkins, J. D., & Oesterle, S. (2011). Drug use and risk among youth in different rural contexts. Health & Place,17(3), 775–783. CrossRef
Santor, D. E., Messervey, D., & Kusumakar, V. (2000). Measuring peer pressure, popularity, and conformity in adolescent boys and girls: Predicting school performance, sexual attitudes, and substance abuse. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,29(2), 163–182. CrossRef
Scheer, S. D., Borden, L. M., & Donnermeyer, J. F. (2000). The relationship between family factors and adolescent substance use in rural, suburban, and urban settings. Journal of Child and Family Studies,9(1), 105–115. CrossRef
Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Shears, J., Edwards, R. W., & Stanley, L. R. (2006). School bonding and substance use in rural communities. Social Work Research,30(1), 6–18. CrossRef
Singh, K., & Dika, S. (2003). The educational effects of rural adolescents’ social networks. Journal of Research in Rural Education,18(2), 114–128.
Spano, R., & Nagy, S. (2005). Social guardianship and social isolation: An application and extension of lifestyle/routine activities theory to rural adolescents. Rural Sociology,70(3), 414–437. CrossRef
Stewart, E. A. (2003). School social bonds, school climate, and school misbehavior: A multilevel analysis. Justice Quarterly,20(3), 575–604. CrossRef
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2011). Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of national findings. NSDUH Series h- 41, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 11- 4658. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Szapocznik, J., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1999). An ecodevelopmental framework for organizing the influences on drug abuse: A developmental model of risk and protection. In M. D. Glantz & C. R. Hartel (Eds.), Drug abuse: Origins and interventions (pp. 331–366). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Warner, T. D., Giordano, P. C., Manning, W. D., & Longmore, M. A. (2011). Everybody’s doin’ it (right?): Neighborhood norms and sexual activity in adolescence. Social Science Research,21(3), 199–205.
Warr, M. (2002). Companions in crime: The social aspects of criminal conduct. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wilson, J. M., & Donnermeyer, J. F. (2006). Urbanity, rurality, and adolescent substance use. Criminal Justice Review,31(4), 337–356. CrossRef
Wright, E. M., Fagan, A. A., & Pinchevsky, G. M. (2014). Penny for your thoughts? The protective effect of youths’ attitudes against drug use in high-risk communities. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. doi: 10.1177/1541204014562074.
- The Geography of Normative Climates: An Application to Adolescent Substance Use
Courtney R. Thrash
Tara D. Warner
- Springer US