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01-12-2010 | Uitgave 10/2010

Quality of Life Research 10/2010

The Generation R study: a candidate gene study and genome-wide association study (GWAS) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of mothers and young children

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 10/2010
Hein Raat, Lenie van Rossem, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Jeanne M. Landgraf, David Feeny, Henriëtte A. Moll, Albert Hofman, Johan P. Mackenbach



The aim of this paper is to describe the Generation R study as a template that enables candidate gene study and genome-wide association study regarding health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of mothers and their young children.


Generation R is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onwards in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Children were born in 2002–2006. Blood from mothers and placenta cord blood were sampled. Mothers’ HRQOL was measured 5 times during pregnancy and after birth using SF-12 and EQ-5D. Children’s HRQOL was measured 5 times between age 1 and 5/6 years using Infant-Toddler Quality Of Life questionnaire (ITQOL), Health Status Classification System PreSchool (HSCS-PS) and Child Health Questionnaire Parent Form 28 items (CHQ-PF28), respectively.


DNA is available for 8,055 mothers and 5,908 children. Genotyping of various candidate genes and a genome-wide association (GWA) scan (Illumina 610K) of child DNA were done. A template for gene-HRQOL analyses is provided. We start with candidate gene study on HRQOL of mothers and children. Gene–environment interaction and interaction with medical indicators of health status will be explored. Next, GWA study on HRQOL will be performed.


Gaining insight into the determinants of HRQOL is essential to assisting efforts in health policy and clinical application to improve well-being and health. In the future, it might be possible to complement HRQOL assessments by examinations of genetic markers. Strengths and weaknesses of the Generation R study are discussed.

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