Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Based on the dual systems of the cognitive control model, the attainment of improved well-being requires both reactive and proactive cognitive control modes. However, previous studies have shown that adults are guided by top-down cognitive control as opposed to reactive control which interferes with the ability to learn new skills and consequently leads to an inflexible mindset (including tendencies such as confirmation bias). The present study proposes that mindfulness can be a means of balancing this cognitive control system by focusing on the present moment without judgment, thereby encouraging individuals to be more flexible in using both the reactive and proactive control modes. We used the AX version of the Continuous Performance Test to display the reactive and proactive control modes, and the results revealed that both more mindful individuals (study 1) and those in a brief mindfulness manipulation group (study 2) performed better with both reactive and proactive control, whereas in individuals with less mindfulness (study 1) and those in the control groups (study 2), proactive control dominated. Our findings support the idea that mindfulness enhances both reactive and proactive control, which leads to flexible cognitive control performance.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Amer, T., Campbell, K. L., & Hasher, L. (2016). Cognitive control as a double-edged sword. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20, 905–915. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2016.10.002. CrossRefPubMed
Antonova, E., Chadwick, P., & Kumari, V. (2015). More meditation, less habituation? The effect of mindfulness practice on the acoustic startle reflex. PloS One, 10, e0123512. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123512. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Braver, T. S. (2012). The variable nature of cognitive control: a dual mechanisms framework. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 106–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2011.12.010. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2062. CrossRefPubMed
Chang, J. H., Lin, Y. C., & Huang, C. L. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Chinese translation of Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (CMAAS). Psychological Testing, 58, 235–260.
Chiesa, A., Calati, R., & Serretti, A. (2011). Does mindfulness training improve cognitive abilities? A systematic review of neuropsychological findings. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 449–464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.11.003. CrossRefPubMed
Chiesa, A., Serretti, A., & Jakobsen, J. C. (2012). Mindfulness: top-down or bottom-up emotion regulation strategy? Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 82–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.10.006. CrossRefPubMed
Gallant, S. N. (2016). Mindfulness meditation practice and executive functioning: breaking down the benefit. Consciousness and Cognition, 40, 116–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2016.01.005. CrossRefPubMed
Giluk, T. L. (2009). Mindfulness, big five personality, and affect: a meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 805–811. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.026. CrossRef
Greenberg, J., Reiner, K., & Meiran, N. (2012). Mind the trap: mindfulness practice reduces cognitive rigidity. PloS One, 7(5), e36206. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036206.
Grossman, P. (2011). Defining mindfulness by how poorly I think I pay attention during everyday awareness and other intractable problems for psychology's (re)invention of mindfulness: comment on Brown et al. (2011). Psychological Assessment, 23(4), 1034–1040. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022713.
Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: model, processes and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.006. CrossRefPubMed
Kashdan, T. B., & Rottenberg, J. (2010). Psychological flexibility as a fundamental aspect of health. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 467–480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.001. CrossRef
Kuo, C. Y., & Yeh, Y. Y. (2015). Reset a task set after five minutes of mindfulness practice. Consciousness and Cognition, 35, 98–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2015.04.023. CrossRefPubMed
Lynch, T. R., Trost, W. T., Salsman, N., & Linehan, M. M. (2007). Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 181–205. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.2.022305.095229. CrossRefPubMed
Moore, A., & Malinowski, P. (2009). Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 176–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2008.12.008. CrossRefPubMed
Munakata, Y., Snyder, H. R., & Chatham, C. H. (2013). Developing Cognitive Control: The Costs and Benefits of active, Abstract Representations Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (pp. 55–90). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
Paxton, J. L., Barch, D. M., Storandt, M., & Braver, T. S. (2006). Effects of environmental support and strategy training on older adults’ use of context. Psychology and Aging, 21, 499–509. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-79220.127.116.119. CrossRefPubMed
Stillman, C. M., Feldman, H., Wambach, C. G., Howard, J. H., & Howard, D. V. (2014). Dispositional mindfulness is associated with reduced implicit learning. Consciousness and Cognition, 28, 141–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2014.07.002. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., Ridgeway, V. A., Soulsby, J. M., & Lau, M. A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 615–623. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006X.68.4.615. CrossRefPubMed
Williams, J. M. G., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2011). Mindfulness: diverse perspectives on its meaning, origins, and multiple applications at the intersection of science and dharma. Contemporary Buddhism, 12, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/14639947.2011.564811. CrossRef
- The Flexible Effect of Mindfulness on Cognitive Control
- Springer US