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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 1/2010

01-03-2010

The Factor Structure of Effortful Control and Measurement Invariance Across Ethnicity and Sex in a High-Risk Sample

Auteurs: Michael J. Sulik, Snjezana Huerta, Argero A. Zerr, Nancy Eisenberg, Tracy L. Spinrad, Carlos Valiente, Laura Di Giunta, Armando A. Pina, Natalie D. Eggum, Julie Sallquist, Alison Edwards, Anne Kupfer, Christopher J. Lonigan, Beth M. Phillips, Shauna B. Wilson, Jeanine Clancy-Menchetti, Susan H. Landry, Paul R. Swank, Michael A. Assel, Heather B. Taylor

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 1/2010

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Abstract

Measurement invariance of a one-factor model of effortful control (EC) was tested for 853 low-income preschoolers (M age = 4.48 years). Using a teacher-report questionnaire and seven behavioral measures, configural invariance (same factor structure across groups), metric invariance (same pattern of factor loadings across groups), and partial scalar invariance (mostly the same intercepts across groups) were established across ethnicity (European Americans, African Americans and Hispanics) and across sex. These results suggest that the latent construct of EC behaved in a similar way across ethnic groups and sex, and that comparisons of mean levels of EC are valid across sex and probably valid across ethnicity, especially when larger numbers of tasks are used. The findings also support the use of diverse behavioral measures as indicators of a single latent EC construct.

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Voetnoten
1
Garon et al. (2008) distinguished between simple and complex inhibition, and the two-factor EFAs suggested that the three delay/persistence tasks (gift wrap, waiting for bow, and yarn tangle) primarily loaded on one factor, whereas the other tasks loaded on a second factor, providing some support for this distinction in our data despite the small second eigenvalues. In CFAs, the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC; Raftery 1995) did not clearly favor one model over the other, and the correlations among the factors in the two-factor model were estimated to be .75 or above in each group. Moreover, when two factors were tested in each of the ethnic groups, the model would not converge for the Hispanic group. Therefore, we used the one-factor model to maintain parsimony.
 
2
The Kaiser criterion, which states that one should retain factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0, was not used because it tends to overestimate the true number of factors (Lance et al. 2006; Zwick and Velicer 1982). In addition, the Kaiser criterion should only be used for principal components analysis, not factor analysis (Fabrigar et al. 1999).
 
3
Measurement invariance models in which the Hispanic group consisted of only of English speaking students or only Spanish-speaking students were compared to the models that included the entire sample. In these alternate models, metric, configural, and partial scalar invariance were established in both language groups. In the full sample, 5 intercepts needed to be released for partial scalar invariance. In the English speaking group, 4 needed to be released and all were the same as in the full sample. In the Spanish-speaking group, 5 needed to be released: 3 were the same as the full sample, and two were different. This finding suggests that language differences cannot fully explain the differences in intercepts among the ethnic groups in our sample.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
The Factor Structure of Effortful Control and Measurement Invariance Across Ethnicity and Sex in a High-Risk Sample
Auteurs
Michael J. Sulik
Snjezana Huerta
Argero A. Zerr
Nancy Eisenberg
Tracy L. Spinrad
Carlos Valiente
Laura Di Giunta
Armando A. Pina
Natalie D. Eggum
Julie Sallquist
Alison Edwards
Anne Kupfer
Christopher J. Lonigan
Beth M. Phillips
Shauna B. Wilson
Jeanine Clancy-Menchetti
Susan H. Landry
Paul R. Swank
Michael A. Assel
Heather B. Taylor
Publicatiedatum
01-03-2010
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 1/2010
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-009-9164-y