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This research was supported by a grant to the Nancy Eisenberg (PI), Tracy Spinrad, and Carlos Valiente and to the School Readiness Consortium from the National Institute of Child Health and Development.
Measurement invariance of a one-factor model of effortful control (EC) was tested for 853 low-income preschoolers (M age = 4.48 years). Using a teacher-report questionnaire and seven behavioral measures, configural invariance (same factor structure across groups), metric invariance (same pattern of factor loadings across groups), and partial scalar invariance (mostly the same intercepts across groups) were established across ethnicity (European Americans, African Americans and Hispanics) and across sex. These results suggest that the latent construct of EC behaved in a similar way across ethnic groups and sex, and that comparisons of mean levels of EC are valid across sex and probably valid across ethnicity, especially when larger numbers of tasks are used. The findings also support the use of diverse behavioral measures as indicators of a single latent EC construct.
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- The Factor Structure of Effortful Control and Measurement Invariance Across Ethnicity and Sex in a High-Risk Sample
Michael J. Sulik
Argero A. Zerr
Tracy L. Spinrad
Laura Di Giunta
Armando A. Pina
Natalie D. Eggum
Christopher J. Lonigan
Beth M. Phillips
Shauna B. Wilson
Susan H. Landry
Paul R. Swank
Michael A. Assel
Heather B. Taylor
- Springer US
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505