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29-08-2019 | Invited Paper | Uitgave 12/2019

Journal of Child and Family Studies 12/2019

The Exclusionary Discipline of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Students with and Without Disabilities: A Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) National Analysis

Journal of Child and Family Studies > Uitgave 12/2019
Denise K. Whitford, Nicholas A. Gage, Antonis Katsiyannis, Jennifer Counts, Luke J. Rapa, Anna McWhorter
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The objective of this study was to assess the rates of disciplinary exclusion for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students with and without disabilities, relative to Black, Hispanic/Latino, and White students, using 2015–2016 national level data from the U.S. Department of Education’s Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC).


We utilized quantitative analysis, including rates and weighted risk ratios, to assess disproportionality in disciplinary exclusions in terms of suspensions and expulsions.


AI/AN students were disproportionately represented in exclusionary discipline practices, most substantially in comparison to White students, while AIAN students with disabilities were disproportionally represented in terms of suspension and expulsion risk compared to both Hispanic/Latino and White students, but not compared to Black students. The risk for AI/AN students, with and without disabilities, was highest for expulsion, the most extreme form of disciplinary exclusion.


AI/AN students with and without disabilities remain overrepresented in exclusionary discipline. The Largest disproportionality was evident comparing AI/AN students and White students, with AI/AN students nearly nine times more likely to receive an in-school suspension, more than 10 times more likely to receive an out-of-school suspension, nearly 16 times more likely to receive more than one out-of-school suspension, and more than 30 times more likely to be expelled. Implications and recommendations to address issues related to this overrepresentation in disciplinary exclusion are provided.

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