Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 6/2007

01-07-2007 | Original Paper

The Efficacy of a 9-Month Treadmill Walking Program on the Exercise Capacity and Weight Reduction for Adolescents with Severe Autism

Auteurs: Kenneth H. Pitetti, Andrew D. Rendoff, Travis Grover, Michael W. Beets

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 6/2007

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study evaluated the efficacy of a 9-month treadmill walking (TW) program on exercise capacity and body mass index (BMI) for adolescents with severe autism. Ten youth residing in a residential/school treatment facility were assigned to either a supplemental treadmill walking (TW) or control group. Both groups continued to participate in their regular physical education curriculum. Monthly records were maintained for the following: (a) TW progression in frequency, duration, speed and elevation; (b) caloric expenditure; and (c) BMI. The TW program resulted in significant increases in mean monthly TW frequency, speed, elevation, and calories expended coupled with a reduction in BMI.
Literatuur
go back to reference Andrew, G. M., Reid, G., Beck, S., & McDonald, W. (1979). Training of the developmentally handicapped young adult. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 4, 289–293. Andrew, G. M., Reid, G., Beck, S., & McDonald, W. (1979). Training of the developmentally handicapped young adult. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 4, 289–293.
go back to reference American College of Sports Medicine. (2005). ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (7th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. American College of Sports Medicine. (2005). ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (7th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV_TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV_TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Bachman, J. E., & Fugua, R. W. (1983). Management of inappropriate behaviors of trainable mentally impaired students using antecedent exercise. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 477–484. PubMedCrossRef Bachman, J. E., & Fugua, R. W. (1983). Management of inappropriate behaviors of trainable mentally impaired students using antecedent exercise. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 477–484. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bachman, J. E. & Sluyter, D. (1988). Reducing inappropriate behaviors of developmentally disabled adults using antecedent aerobic dance exercise. Research and Developmental Disabilities, 9, 73–83. CrossRef Bachman, J. E. & Sluyter, D. (1988). Reducing inappropriate behaviors of developmentally disabled adults using antecedent aerobic dance exercise. Research and Developmental Disabilities, 9, 73–83. CrossRef
go back to reference Baumeister, A. A., & MacLean, W. E. Jr. (1984). Deceleration of self-injurious and stereotypic responding by exercise. Applied Research on Mental Retardation, 5, 385–393. CrossRef Baumeister, A. A., & MacLean, W. E. Jr. (1984). Deceleration of self-injurious and stereotypic responding by exercise. Applied Research on Mental Retardation, 5, 385–393. CrossRef
go back to reference Beasley, C. R. (1982). Effects of jogging program on cardiovascular fitness and work performances of mentally retarded persons. American Journal of Mental Deficiencies, 86, 609–613. Beasley, C. R. (1982). Effects of jogging program on cardiovascular fitness and work performances of mentally retarded persons. American Journal of Mental Deficiencies, 86, 609–613.
go back to reference Blair, S. N., Kohl, H. W., Paffenbarger, R. S., Clark, D. G., Cooper, K. H., & Gibbons, L. W. (1989). Physical activity and all cause mortality: A prospective study of healthy men and women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262, 2395–2401. PubMedCrossRef Blair, S. N., Kohl, H. W., Paffenbarger, R. S., Clark, D. G., Cooper, K. H., & Gibbons, L. W. (1989). Physical activity and all cause mortality: A prospective study of healthy men and women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262, 2395–2401. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Booth, F. W., Gordon, S. E., Carlson, C. J., & Hamilton, M. T. (2000). Waging war on modern chronic disease: Primary prevention through exercise biology. Journal of Applied Physiology, 88, 774–787. PubMed Booth, F. W., Gordon, S. E., Carlson, C. J., & Hamilton, M. T. (2000). Waging war on modern chronic disease: Primary prevention through exercise biology. Journal of Applied Physiology, 88, 774–787. PubMed
go back to reference Bundschuh, E. L., & Cureton, K. J. (1982). Effect of bicycle ergometer conditioning on the physical work capacity of mentally retarded adolescents. American Correctional Therapy Journal, 36, 159–163. Bundschuh, E. L., & Cureton, K. J. (1982). Effect of bicycle ergometer conditioning on the physical work capacity of mentally retarded adolescents. American Correctional Therapy Journal, 36, 159–163.
go back to reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). BMI-Body Mass Index. Retrived 5/26, 2005, from http://​www.​cdc.​gov/​nccdphp/​dnpa/​bmi.​ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). BMI-Body Mass Index. Retrived 5/26, 2005, from http://​www.​cdc.​gov/​nccdphp/​dnpa/​bmi.​
go back to reference Chanias, A. K., Reid, G., & Hoover, M. L. (1998). Exercise effects on health-related physical fitness of individuals with an intellectual disability: A meta-analysis. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 15, 119–140. Chanias, A. K., Reid, G., & Hoover, M. L. (1998). Exercise effects on health-related physical fitness of individuals with an intellectual disability: A meta-analysis. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 15, 119–140.
go back to reference Cohen, J. (1969). Statistical power for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Academic Press. Cohen, J. (1969). Statistical power for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Academic Press.
go back to reference De Leiva, A. (1998). What are the benefits of moderate weight loss? Experimental Clinical Endocrinology in Diabetes, 106, 10–13. CrossRef De Leiva, A. (1998). What are the benefits of moderate weight loss? Experimental Clinical Endocrinology in Diabetes, 106, 10–13. CrossRef
go back to reference Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (2000). American Psychiatric Assocation. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (2000). American Psychiatric Assocation.
go back to reference Elliott, R. O., Dobbin, A. R., Rose, G. D., & Soper, H. V. (1994). Vigorous, aerobic exercise versus general motor training activities: Effects on maladaptive and stereotypic behaviors of adults with both autism and mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 565–576. PubMedCrossRef Elliott, R. O., Dobbin, A. R., Rose, G. D., & Soper, H. V. (1994). Vigorous, aerobic exercise versus general motor training activities: Effects on maladaptive and stereotypic behaviors of adults with both autism and mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 565–576. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fernhall, B. (1993). Physical fitness and exercise training for individuals with mental retardation. Medical and Science in Sport and Exercise, 25, 442–450. Fernhall, B. (1993). Physical fitness and exercise training for individuals with mental retardation. Medical and Science in Sport and Exercise, 25, 442–450.
go back to reference Fernhall, B., & Pitetti, K. H. (2001). Limitations to physical work capacity in individuals with mental retardation. Clinical Exercise Physiology, 3, 176–185. Fernhall, B., & Pitetti, K. H. (2001). Limitations to physical work capacity in individuals with mental retardation. Clinical Exercise Physiology, 3, 176–185.
go back to reference Frey, B. C., McCubbin, J. A., Hannington-Downs, S., Kasser, S .L., & Skaggs, S. O. (1999). Physical fitness of trained runners with and without mental retardation. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 16, 126–137. Frey, B. C., McCubbin, J. A., Hannington-Downs, S., Kasser, S .L., & Skaggs, S. O. (1999). Physical fitness of trained runners with and without mental retardation. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 16, 126–137.
go back to reference Gregg, E. W., Gerzoff, R. B., Caspersen, C. J., Williamson, D. F., & Narayan, K. M. (2003). Relationship of walking to mortality among US adults with diabetes. Archive of Internal Medicine, 163, 1440–1447. CrossRef Gregg, E. W., Gerzoff, R. B., Caspersen, C. J., Williamson, D. F., & Narayan, K. M. (2003). Relationship of walking to mortality among US adults with diabetes. Archive of Internal Medicine, 163, 1440–1447. CrossRef
go back to reference Hakim, A. A., Curb, J. D., Petrovich, H., Rodriquez, B. L., Yano, K., Ross, G. W., White, L. R., & Abbot, R. D. (1999). Effects of walking on coronary heart disease in elderly men: The Honolulu Heart Program. Circulation, 100, 9–13. PubMed Hakim, A. A., Curb, J. D., Petrovich, H., Rodriquez, B. L., Yano, K., Ross, G. W., White, L. R., & Abbot, R. D. (1999). Effects of walking on coronary heart disease in elderly men: The Honolulu Heart Program. Circulation, 100, 9–13. PubMed
go back to reference Hayden, M. F. (1998). Mortality among people with mental retardation living in the United States: Research review and policy application. Journal of Mental Retardation, 36, 345–359. CrossRef Hayden, M. F. (1998). Mortality among people with mental retardation living in the United States: Research review and policy application. Journal of Mental Retardation, 36, 345–359. CrossRef
go back to reference Hellings, J. A., Zarcone, J. R., Crandall, K., Wallace, D., & Schroeder, S. R. (2001). Weight gain in a controlled study of risperidone in children, adolescents and adults with mental retardation and autism. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 11(3), 229–238. PubMedCrossRef Hellings, J. A., Zarcone, J. R., Crandall, K., Wallace, D., & Schroeder, S. R. (2001). Weight gain in a controlled study of risperidone in children, adolescents and adults with mental retardation and autism. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 11(3), 229–238. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Henry, G. T. (1990). Practical sampling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Henry, G. T. (1990). Practical sampling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6, 65–70. Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6, 65–70.
go back to reference Hu, F. B., Sigal, R. J., Rich-Edwards, J. W., Coditz, G. A., Solomon, C. G., & Willett, W. C. et al. (1999). Walking compared with vigorous physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in women: A prospective study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 1433–1439. PubMedCrossRef Hu, F. B., Sigal, R. J., Rich-Edwards, J. W., Coditz, G. A., Solomon, C. G., & Willett, W. C. et al. (1999). Walking compared with vigorous physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in women: A prospective study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 1433–1439. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Institute of Medicine (2004). Preventing childhood obesity: Health in the balance; committee on prevention of obesity in children and youth. Washington DC: National Academic Press. Institute of Medicine (2004). Preventing childhood obesity: Health in the balance; committee on prevention of obesity in children and youth. Washington DC: National Academic Press.
go back to reference Jacobson, N. S., & Truax, P. (1991). Clinical significance: A stistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 12–19. PubMedCrossRef Jacobson, N. S., & Truax, P. (1991). Clinical significance: A stistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 12–19. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kern, L., Koegel, R. L., & Dunlap, G. (1984). The influence of vigorous versus mild exercise on autistic stereotyped behaviors. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14, 57–67. PubMedCrossRef Kern, L., Koegel, R. L., & Dunlap, G. (1984). The influence of vigorous versus mild exercise on autistic stereotyped behaviors. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14, 57–67. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kern, L., Koegel, R. L., Dyer, K., Blew, P. A., & Fenton, L. R. (1982). The effect of physical exercise on self-stimulation and appropriate responding in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 399–419. PubMedCrossRef Kern, L., Koegel, R. L., Dyer, K., Blew, P. A., & Fenton, L. R. (1982). The effect of physical exercise on self-stimulation and appropriate responding in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 399–419. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lee, I. M., Rexrode, K. M., Cook, N. R., Manson, J. E., & Buring, J. E. (2001). Physical activity and coronary heart disease in women: Is “no pain, no gain” passé? Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 1447–1454. PubMedCrossRef Lee, I. M., Rexrode, K. M., Cook, N. R., Manson, J. E., & Buring, J. E. (2001). Physical activity and coronary heart disease in women: Is “no pain, no gain” passé? Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 1447–1454. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Leiter, R. G. (1969). The Leitier international performance scale. Chicago: Stoelting. Leiter, R. G. (1969). The Leitier international performance scale. Chicago: Stoelting.
go back to reference Lotan, M., Isakov, E., & Merrick, J. (2004). Improving functional skills and physical fitness in children with Rett syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 48, 730–735. PubMedCrossRef Lotan, M., Isakov, E., & Merrick, J. (2004). Improving functional skills and physical fitness in children with Rett syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 48, 730–735. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Manson, J. E., Greenland, P., LaCroix, A. Z., Stefanick, M. L., Mouton, C. P., & Oberman, A. et al. (2002). Walking compared with vigorous exercise for the prevention of cardiovascular events in women. New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 716–725. PubMedCrossRef Manson, J. E., Greenland, P., LaCroix, A. Z., Stefanick, M. L., Mouton, C. P., & Oberman, A. et al. (2002). Walking compared with vigorous exercise for the prevention of cardiovascular events in women. New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 716–725. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Manson, J. E., Hu, F. B., Rich-Edwards, J. W., Colditz, G. A., Meir, J. S., & Willett, W. C. et al. (1999). A prospective study of walking as compared with vigorous exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease in women. New England Journal of Medicine, 341, 650–658. PubMedCrossRef Manson, J. E., Hu, F. B., Rich-Edwards, J. W., Colditz, G. A., Meir, J. S., & Willett, W. C. et al. (1999). A prospective study of walking as compared with vigorous exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease in women. New England Journal of Medicine, 341, 650–658. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference McGlimsey, J. F., & Favell, J. E. (1988). The effects of increased physical exercise on disruptive behavior in retarded persons. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 167–179. CrossRef McGlimsey, J. F., & Favell, J. E. (1988). The effects of increased physical exercise on disruptive behavior in retarded persons. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 167–179. CrossRef
go back to reference National Institutes of Health (NIH) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). (1998). Clinical Guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Evidence report. Bethesda, MD: NIHNHLBI (Online). Available: www.nhlbi.nih.gov. National Institutes of Health (NIH) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). (1998). Clinical Guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Evidence report. Bethesda, MD: NIHNHLBI (Online). Available: www.nhlbi.nih.gov.
go back to reference Nordgren, B. (1971). Physical capacity and training in a group of young adult mentally retarded persons. Acta Paediatric of Scandanavia (Suppl.), 217, 119–121. CrossRef Nordgren, B. (1971). Physical capacity and training in a group of young adult mentally retarded persons. Acta Paediatric of Scandanavia (Suppl.), 217, 119–121. CrossRef
go back to reference Pasanisi, F., Contaldo, F., de Simone, G., & Mancini, M. (2001). Benefits of sustained moderate weight loss in obesity. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Disease, 11, 401–406. Pasanisi, F., Contaldo, F., de Simone, G., & Mancini, M. (2001). Benefits of sustained moderate weight loss in obesity. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Disease, 11, 401–406.
go back to reference Pate, R., Pratt, M., & Blair, S. N. (1995). Physical activity and public health. A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 402–407. PubMedCrossRef Pate, R., Pratt, M., & Blair, S. N. (1995). Physical activity and public health. A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 402–407. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pitetti, K. H., & Tan, D. A. (1991). The effects of a minimally supervised training program on the cardiovascular fitness of mentally retarded adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23(5), 594–601. PubMed Pitetti, K. H., & Tan, D. A. (1991). The effects of a minimally supervised training program on the cardiovascular fitness of mentally retarded adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23(5), 594–601. PubMed
go back to reference Pitetti, K. H., & Campbell, K. D. (1991). Mentally retarded individuals – A population at risk? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 586–593. PubMed Pitetti, K. H., & Campbell, K. D. (1991). Mentally retarded individuals – A population at risk? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 586–593. PubMed
go back to reference Pitetti, K. H., Rimmer, J. H., & Fernhall, B. (1993). Physical fitness and adults with mental retardation: An overview of current research and future directions. Sports Medicine, 16, 23–56. PubMed Pitetti, K. H., Rimmer, J. H., & Fernhall, B. (1993). Physical fitness and adults with mental retardation: An overview of current research and future directions. Sports Medicine, 16, 23–56. PubMed
go back to reference Pitetti, K. H., Jongmans, B., & Fernhall, B. (1999). Reliability of a treadmill test for youth with multiple disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 16(4), 362–371. Pitetti, K. H., Jongmans, B., & Fernhall, B. (1999). Reliability of a treadmill test for youth with multiple disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 16(4), 362–371.
go back to reference Pitetti, K. H., Yarmer, D. A., & Fernhall, B. (2001). Cardiovascular fitness and body composition in children and adolescents with and without mental retardation. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 18, 127–141. Pitetti, K. H., Yarmer, D. A., & Fernhall, B. (2001). Cardiovascular fitness and body composition in children and adolescents with and without mental retardation. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 18, 127–141.
go back to reference Rimmer, J. H., Heller, T., Wang, E., & Valerio, I. (2004). Improvement in physical fitness in adults with Down syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 109, 165–174. PubMedCrossRef Rimmer, J. H., Heller, T., Wang, E., & Valerio, I. (2004). Improvement in physical fitness in adults with Down syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 109, 165–174. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rosenthal-Malek, A., & Mitchell, S. (1997). Brief report: The effects of exercise on the self-stimulatory behaviors and positive responding of adolescents with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27, 193–202. PubMedCrossRef Rosenthal-Malek, A., & Mitchell, S. (1997). Brief report: The effects of exercise on the self-stimulatory behaviors and positive responding of adolescents with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27, 193–202. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Schurrer, R., Weltman, A., & Brannel, H. (1985). Effects of physical training on cardiovascular fitness and behavior patterns of mentally retarded adults. American Journal of Mental Deficiencies, 90, 167–170. Schurrer, R., Weltman, A., & Brannel, H. (1985). Effects of physical training on cardiovascular fitness and behavior patterns of mentally retarded adults. American Journal of Mental Deficiencies, 90, 167–170.
go back to reference Sesso, H. D., Paffenbarger, R. S. Jr., & Lee, I. M. (2000). Physical activity and coronary heart disease in men: The Harvard Alumni Health Study. Circulation, 102, 975–980. PubMed Sesso, H. D., Paffenbarger, R. S. Jr., & Lee, I. M. (2000). Physical activity and coronary heart disease in men: The Harvard Alumni Health Study. Circulation, 102, 975–980. PubMed
go back to reference Sherrill, C., & O’Conner, J. (1999). Guidelines for improving adapted physical activity research. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 4, 106–116. Sherrill, C., & O’Conner, J. (1999). Guidelines for improving adapted physical activity research. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 4, 106–116.
go back to reference Slosson, R. L. (1963). The Slosson intelligence test for children andadults. New York: Slosson Educational Publications. Slosson, R. L. (1963). The Slosson intelligence test for children andadults. New York: Slosson Educational Publications.
go back to reference Sutherland, G., Couch, M. A., & Iacono, T. (2002). Health issues for adults with developmental disability. Research on Developmental Disabilities, 23, 422–445. CrossRef Sutherland, G., Couch, M. A., & Iacono, T. (2002). Health issues for adults with developmental disability. Research on Developmental Disabilities, 23, 422–445. CrossRef
go back to reference Tanasescu, M., Leitzman, M. F., Rimm, E. B., Willet, W. C., Stampfer, M. J., & Hu, F. B. (2002). Exercise type and intensity in relation to coronary heart disease in men. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 1994–2000. PubMedCrossRef Tanasescu, M., Leitzman, M. F., Rimm, E. B., Willet, W. C., Stampfer, M. J., & Hu, F. B. (2002). Exercise type and intensity in relation to coronary heart disease in men. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 1994–2000. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tomporowski, P. D., & Ellis, N. R. (1985). The effects of exercise on the health, intelligence, and adapted behavior of institutionalized severely and profoundly mentally retarded persons: A systemic replication. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 6, 465–473. PubMedCrossRef Tomporowski, P. D., & Ellis, N. R. (1985). The effects of exercise on the health, intelligence, and adapted behavior of institutionalized severely and profoundly mentally retarded persons: A systemic replication. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 6, 465–473. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tomporowski, P. D., & Jameson, L. D. (1985). Effects of a physical fitness training program on the exercise behavior of institutionalized mentally retarded adults. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 2, 197–205. Tomporowski, P. D., & Jameson, L. D. (1985). Effects of a physical fitness training program on the exercise behavior of institutionalized mentally retarded adults. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 2, 197–205.
go back to reference U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Physical Activity and Health, 1996, http://​www.​cdc.​gov/​nccdphp/​sgr/​sgr.​htm.​ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Physical Activity and Health, 1996, http://​www.​cdc.​gov/​nccdphp/​sgr/​sgr.​htm.​
go back to reference Weclsler, D. (1981). The Wechsler intelligence scale—revised. New York: Psychological Corp. Weclsler, D. (1981). The Wechsler intelligence scale—revised. New York: Psychological Corp.
Metagegevens
Titel
The Efficacy of a 9-Month Treadmill Walking Program on the Exercise Capacity and Weight Reduction for Adolescents with Severe Autism
Auteurs
Kenneth H. Pitetti
Andrew D. Rendoff
Travis Grover
Michael W. Beets
Publicatiedatum
01-07-2007
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 6/2007
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0238-3

Andere artikelen Uitgave 6/2007

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 6/2007 Naar de uitgave