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01-12-2017 | Research | Uitgave 1/2017 Open Access

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1/2017

The effects on calcaneofibular ligament function of differences in the angle of the calcaneofibular ligament with respect to the long axis of the fibula: a simulation study

Tijdschrift:
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research > Uitgave 1/2017
Auteurs:
Mutsuaki Edama, Ikuo Kageyama, Takanori Kikumoto, Masatoshi Nakamura, Wataru Ito, Emi Nakamura, Ryo Hirabayashi, Tomoya Takabayashi, Takuma Inai, Hideaki Onishi

Abstract

Background

In the present study, CFLs harvested from cadavers were categorized according to the differences in the angle of the CFL with respect to the long axis of the fibula and their shape, and then three-dimensional reconstructions of the CFLs were used to simulate and examine the differences in the angles of the CFLs with respect to the long axis of the fibula and how they affect CFL function.

Methods

The study sample included 81 ft from 43 Japanese cadavers. CFLs were categorized according to their angle with respect to the long axis of the fibula and the number of fiber bundles. Five categories were subsequently established: CFL20° (angle of the CFL with respect to the long axis of the fibula from 20° to 29°); CFL30° (range 30–39°); CFL40° (range 40–49°); CFL50° (range 50–59°); and CFL2 (CLFs with two crossing fiber bundles). Three-dimensional reconstructions of a single specimen from each category were then created. These were used to simulate and calculate CFL strain during dorsiflexion (20°) and plantarflexion (30°) on the talocrural joint axis and inversion (20°) and eversion (20°) on the subtalar joint axis.

Results

In terms of proportions for each category, CFL20° was observed in 14 ft (17.3%), with CFL30° in 22 ft (27.2%), CFL40° in 29 ft (35.8%), CFL50° in 15 ft (18.5%), and CFL2 in one foot (1.2%). Specimens in the CFL20° and CFL30° groups contracted with plantarflexion and stretched with dorsiflexion. In comparison, specimens in the CFL40°, CFL50°, and CFL2 groups stretched with plantarflexion and contracted with dorsiflexion. Specimens in the CFL20° and CFL2 groups stretched with inversion and contracted with eversion.

Conclusions

CFL function changed according to the difference in the angles of the CFLs with respect to the long axis of the fibula.

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